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Class B Woes

Normal Procedures: Airspace

 


 

You Aren't Being Paranoid, (they really are out to get you)

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Figure: TECKY ONE Paranoid Trap, from Eddie's notes, taking KSJC TECKY ONE Departure (FAA SW-2, 28 May 2015 to 25 Jun 2015) ground track and altitude restrictions and using KSFO Class B Airspace Restriction overlay

You may have heard of 14 CFR 91.117(c) and you may even know what it says:

[14 CFR 91, §91.117(c)] No person may operate an aircraft in the airspace underlying a Class B airspace area designated for an airport or in a VFR corridor designated through such a Class B airspace area, at an indicated airspeed of more than 200 knots (230 mph).

But how often do you consciously plan for it? The controller also knows the rule but may not care until the day the sky is crowded with smaller aircraft that are having trouble spotting you in time to avoid a collision. You can be sure that on a day that it does matter the controller’s opinion will carry more weight than yours. Consider the San Jose TECKY ONE departure published on January 8, 2015.

If you simply pull up the departure procedure, read the narrative, and mentally fly the solid black line, you can be forgiven for thinking you can accelerate to 230 knots right after takeoff. The first waypoints departing Runway 30 left or right have two restrictions: you must be at least 900 feet in altitude and you cannot be faster than 230 knots. Since we are normally keyed to remaining below 250 knots when below 10,000 feet, we tell ourselves our new target speed is 230 knots until passing STCLR or MLPTS.

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Photo: TECKY ONE displayed on G450 FMS (from Eddie's aircraft)

The flight management systems on many airplanes will dutifully accelerate to that speed, Class B overhead or not.

NORCAL Departure Control would be fully within their rights to point out that you are flying below the San Francisco Class B airspace and your speed cannot exceed 200 knots under 14 CFR 91.117(c). The fact the Class B is not mentioned or depicted on the departure procedure is no excuse. There have been violations issued and NORCAL has been called several times on the discrepancy:

[NBAA Airmail, February 3, 2015] Pilots are reminded that the aircraft is below the Class B airspace in the turn and then just prior to SPTNS. Several pilots have had Pilot Deviations filed against them for exceeding the 200 KIAS limit below the Class B.

An even more insidious source of Class B high-speed trouble happens on arrival, when approach control is trying to sequence aircraft for approaches. “Fly 210 till the marker,” is a clearance to fly a specific speed but it is not clearance to violate an FAR.

So how do you protect yourself from the unknown Class B area that may be lurking over your head? If your departure or destination lies underneath a Class B area you should print the chart or have it readily accessible in the cockpit. If you can overlay the chart on your avionics you should. You should also add Class B considerations to departure procedure and approach briefings.

List of Class B Airspace, United States

What follows is a list that is current as of this writing, but be advised the list is growing. There is an incomplete list in the Aeronautical Information Manual. The real list is in FAA JO 7400.9X Airspace Designation, which you can download below. You can also look on current sectional charts.

    Arizona

  • PHX / KPHX Phoenix Sky Harbor International
  • California:

  • LAX / KLAX Los Angeles International
  • NKX / KNKX Marine Corps Air Station Miramar
  • SAN / KSAN San Diego International/Lindbergh Field
  • SFO / KSFO San Francisco International
  • Colorado:

  • DEN / KDEN Denver International
  • Florida:

  • MCO / KMCO Orlando International
  • MIA / KMIA Miami International
  • TPA / KTPA Tampa International
  • Georgia:

  • ATL / KATL Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International
  • Hawaii:

  • HNL / PHNL Honolulu International
  • Illinois:

  • ORD / KORD Chicago–O'Hare International
  • Kentucky:

  • CVG / KCVG Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International
  • Louisiana:

  • MSY / KMSY Louis Armstrong New Orleans International
  • Maryland:

  • ADW / KADW Andrews Air Force Base
  • BWI / KBWI Baltimore/Washington International
  • Massachusetts:

  • BOS / KBOS Boston–Logan International
  • Michigan:

  • DTW / KDTW Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County
  • Minnesota:

  • MSP / KMSP Minneapolis–Saint Paul International
  • Missouri:

  • MCI / KMCI Kansas City International
  • STL / KSTL Lambert–St. Louis International
  • Nevada:

  • LAS / KLAS Las Vegas–McCarran International
  • New Jersey:

  • EWR / KEWR Newark Liberty International
  • New York:

  • JFK / KJFK New York–John F. Kennedy International
  • LGA / KLGA New York–LaGuardia
  • North Carolina:

  • CLT / KCLT Charlotte Douglas International
  • Ohio:

  • CLE / KCLE Cleveland Hopkins International
  • Pennsylvania:

  • PHL / KPHL Philadelphia International
  • PIT / KPIT Pittsburgh International
  • Tennessee:

  • MEM / KMEM Memphis International
  • Texas:

  • DFW / KDFW Dallas–Fort Worth International
  • HOU / KHOU Houston–Hobby (Secondary Class B Airport)
  • IAH / KIAH Houston–George Bush Intercontinental
  • Utah:

  • SLC / KSLC Salt Lake City International
  • Virginia:

  • DCA / KDCA Ronald Reagan Washington National
  • IAD / KIAD Washington Dulles International
  • Washington:

  • SEA / KSEA Seattle–Tacoma International

PlaneView Trick

Note to PlaneView users: you can pull up the Class B chart for an airport and have your aircraft position displayed if the chart is compliant and you are within its dimensions. The secret is you need to pull up the chart from the Class B airport's file. For example, in the screen shot shown at the top of this page, the airplane was headed to KBED but the Class B in question is for Boston, so the Charts page was selected from KBOS under the "Airspace" tab. Here is a description of the steps, first the conventional method, then the new and improved way to do this.

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Photo: Looking for Class B on the PlaneView DU (from Eddie's aircraft)

We are in the chocks here, not yet started. But the point is we are looking at an approach plate on DU 3 and we can see our aircraft symbol placed in relation to the chart. Any chart with the airplane symbol on the top right (just below the word "chart") is drawn to scale and lets us view our airplane in its real time position.

This is Bedford (KBED) which is just outside of Boston, Massachusetts. We know KBOS is in Class B airspace. But what does that mean to us when flying to KBED?

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Photo: Looking for Class B on the PlaneView DU (from Eddie's aircraft)

The "Book Answer" is to go to the map display . . .

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Photo: Looking for Class B on the PlaneView DU (from Eddie's aircraft)

Under "Map Data" we select "Term Airspace" . . .

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Photo: Looking for Class B on the PlaneView DU (from Eddie's aircraft)

And viola! There are the lateral rings of the Boston Class B, as well as the Class D of various airports in the area. This is the way we are taught to use this display but there is a problem. Which of those rings are the Class B? What are the altitudes associated with each ring? This is better than nothing, but we can do better.

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Photo: Looking for Class B on the PlaneView DU (from Eddie's aircraft)

Go back to the chart display and under the top-left menu select "Search Arpt" . . .

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Photo: Looking for Class B on the PlaneView DU (from Eddie's aircraft)

Type in KBOS and select it.

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Photo: Looking for Class B on the PlaneView DU (from Eddie's aircraft)

Select the "Airspace" tab and there you have it: the airplane symbol relative to the Class B Airspace chart you are used to seeing. The altitudes are there too. I usually have this page up while being vectored for the approach.

Don't kick yourself for not knowing this. (It took me several years to discover.)

References

14 CFR 91, Title 14: Aeronautics and Space, General Operating and Flight Rules, Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation

FAA JO 7400.9X Airspace Designation, U.S. Department of Transportation, August 7, 2013

Revision: 20150929
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