Eddie Sez:

Sure, you put ten standardization pilots in a room to specify cockpit call outs, you will come up with eleven ways to do that. But you need them. I use to call this the "ritualization of standardization." If you make a ritual of the way you make these calls, you get used to them and they get easier. If, one day, the call out is missing, your internal alarm should be raised. Here is the way we've attacked it . . .


General

Call outs are generally made by the PM but are sometimes required of the PF or the first pilot to become aware of a requirement. Whenever a call out is missed, the other pilot can make the call out or query the responsible pilot with the question, “Call out?” Pilots need not make individual call outs which are made by an automated system, such as EGPWS, which makes the specific call out. Call outs are summarized below.


Taking the Runway prior to Take Off.

When taxiing onto the runway, the PF will:

Why do we do this? See the case of Mishaps / Comair Flight 5191.


Takeoff

During the takeoff roll pilots will make standard calls in accordance with the AFM or AOM. In the case of the G450:


Climbing/Descending

When 1,000 feet below/above an assigned altitude, the PF calls the altitude passing and the target altitude. The PM acknowledges the call by repeating the call out. These call outs will be made using the “passing___, climbing/descending___” format, so as to avoid any possible confusion between the words often used in altitude reports “to” and “for.” Radio check‐ins with ATC should be made using the same “passing___, climbing/descending____” format.

Why? See the case of Mishaps / Flying Tiger Line 66 and more techniques at Procedures & Techniques / Clearance Readback.


Instrument Approach

You should have standard call outs for instrument approaches that all crewmembers expect and will note when missing. The following are our calls. (Once the runway is in sight by both pilots, only the “stable” call is required.)

There are more than a few examples of where standardized call outs on approach would have save the day, but pay particular note to Mishaps / G-III N85VT at Houston. They flew a perfectly good airplane into the ground with the wrong ILS frequency tuned. A proper approach briefing followed by a check for glide slope movement would have prevented this mishap.


Enhanced Flight Visual System (EFVS) Approach

EFVS call outs will be in accordance with AFM/AOM procedures. As a minimum, the following call outs will be made in addition to non‐EFVS instrument approach call outs:


Visual or Circling Approach

During a visual approach or circling approach, the PM calls “500 feet, stable” when 500 feet above the runway and the PF calls “Landing.” If the approach is not stable at that point, the PM calls "500 feet, unstable, go around."


Stabilized Approach

You should have specific stabilized approach criteria and procedures. Here are ours:

Figure: A New Stabilized Approach Method, from Eddie's notes.

We back up every straight-in visual with some kind of guidance, either an instrument approach of an FMS extended LNAV/VNAV centerline. All of these require the approach be stabilized no later than 1,000' above minimums. For any circling or non-straight-in visual approach, we use 500' above the runway. More about this: Procedures & Techniques / Stabilized Approach.

We pilots have a "continuation bias" which, despite everything we say, leads us to the "go mode" despite warning sides we should be in "go around mode." While these mishaps have other factors, firmly adhering to stabilized approach criteria would have given each crew a second chance: