Eddie Sez:

I know what you are thinking: "Boring!" Yes, the Before Starting Engines Checklist can be a bit mundane. But you should endeavor to do this using the checklist. There are a few steps along the way, seemingly trivial, that if missed can cost you an engine during a normal start, leave you with a system unpowered and a need to reboot, or without critical system redundancies. I was once in a flight department that insisted this and most other checklists be flowed and followed with a challenge/response. We missed checklist items routinely. Don't be one of those flight departments.

Everything here is from the G450 Aircraft Flight Manual and G450 Airplane Operating Manual, with a few comments in blue.


AFM Procedure

[G450 Aircraft Flight Manual §2-03-20]

  1. Preflight Checklists . . . COMPLETE

  2. Circuit Breakers (CBs) . . . CHECK

  3. Photo: from Haskel's cockpit

  4. ELECTRIC POWER CONTROL Panel . . . SET
  5. You could go your entire career as a G450 pilot without ever touching this panel, but just in case, "Five in, Five out." From left-to-right, the RESET, L BUS TIE, EXT PWR, R BUS TIE, and E-INV switches should be out. From top-to-bottom, the APU GEN, L GEN, R GEN, LEFT and RIGHT MAIN BATTERIES switches should be in.

  6. Standby Electrical Power System (HMG) . . . OFF
  7. APU (If Not Already Running) . . . START
  8. The G450 APU Start procedure is going to have you turn the Emergency Power system on to prevent the battery voltage sent to the MCDU's from dropping below their minimum requirements.

  9. EMERGENCY POWER . . . ARM
  10. The lights would have been on because of the APU start procedure, pressing the ARM switch will switch the system from on to armed and all the lights in this panel should extinguish.

    Photo: from Haskel's cockpit

  11. DISPLAY SYSTEM CONTROL (4) . . . NORM
  12. NOTE: The DISPLAY SYSTEM CONTROL (AGM) reversionary modes should be checked on the first flight of each month.

  13. MFD DISPLAY SWITCHING (2) . . . NORM
  14. NOTE: The MFD DISPLAY SWITCHING reversionary modes should be checked on the first flight of each month. Configure MFD DISPLAY SWITCHING as indicated verifying DU displays as follows:

  15. FLAP/STAB SPOST CHECK (First Flight of the Day) ACCOMPLISH
    1. AUX PUMP . . . ON
    2. STAB PRI AC CB (POP D2) . . . CLOSED
    3. STAB SEC AC CB (CPOP D2) . . . CLOSED
    4. FLAP / STAB PRI L DC CB (POP C6) . . . PULL
    5. FLAP / STAB SEC DC CB (POP E1) . . . PULL
    6. FLAP / STAB PRI R DC CB (CPOP C6) ...PULL
    7. FLAP / STAB PRI R DC CB (CPOP C6), FLAP / STAB SEC CB (POP E1) . . . RESET (SIMULTANEOUSLY)
    8. FLAP / STAB PRI L DC CB (POP C6) . . . RESET
    9. CAUTION: IF FLAPS FAILED AND STABILIZER FAILED CAS MESSAGES DO NOT CLEAR WITHIN 60 SECONDS DO NOT DISPATCH.

    10. AUX PUMP . . . OFF
  16. IRSs . . . ON / INITIALIZED
  17. Though nothing really says this, it is true: you only need a present position in one MCDU to initialized all three IRUs.

    Photo: from Haskel's cockpit

  18. FLT-ID . . . CHECK

  19. FMSs . . . ON / INITIALIZED
  20. NOTE: If datalink was used to load the flight plan, remove any discontinuities present in the flight plan.

    NOTE: The actual takeoff length of a runway can differ from the FMS database due to displaced threshold, stopway, or temporary relocated threshold. If difference is noted, insert the correct value manually into the FMS on TAKEOFF INIT page 2, line 1R.

    Photo: from Haskel's cockpit

  21. Engine FIRE DETECTION FAULT Test . . . TESTED
  22. You can look for "eight things" here if you like, the important thing is that you get both sides of each loop capsule and a CAS message.

  23. L ENG / R ENG FIRE Test . . . TESTED
  24. Once again "eight things" works fine here, but the important things are the lights in the fire handles and fuel switches.

    Photo: from Haskel's cockpit

  25. System Tests . . . TESTED
  26. [G450 Airplane Operating Manual §03-03-20] Test each system on the SYSTEM TEST panel to ensure proper operation as follows:

    1. FUEL . . . 7000 L / 7000 R / 14,000 TOTAL (Verify the amber L-R Fuel Level Low message is displayed on CAS.)
    2. ICE DET . . . CHECKED (Verify the amber L-R Ice Detect Fail and L-R Ice Detected messages are displayed on CAS. NOTE: Ensure the L/R WING ANTI ICE switches are selected OFF prior to testing the ice detection system as a preventative measure. Failure to do so may cause the APU generator to drop off line due to the additional electrical load created from the rapid closing of the APU load control valve.)
    3. SMOKE DET . . . “AFT BAGGAGE SMOKE” MESSAGE ON CAS (RED)
    4. ANN LIGHTS . . . CHECKED
    5. SELCAL . . . CHECKED (This is a double action switch. Push once to set message on CAS and again to clear message. With the switch in the depressed position, “TEST” is illuminated.
    6. We don't have one of these on our airplane and I've not seen any that do.

    7. ENG VIB MON . . . CHECKED (Press ENG VIB MON TEST switch. On Engine Start 1/6 System Page, observe amber EVM indication of 1.8 - 2.2. While holding TEST switch in, select SEC for same indications.
    8. EQPT OVHT . . . CHECKED (Depress and hold EQPT OVHT TEST switch. Verify TEST switch legend illuminates and the following warning messages are displayed on CAS: Aft Equipment Hot, L-C-R Aft Floor Hot, L-R Pylon Hot. Release TEST switch. Verify TEST switch legend extinguishes and CAS messages are no longer displayed.
  27. Engine BLEED AIR . . . OFF
  28. This is critical. You must not start the engines with the engine bleed switches on. Otherwise, the APU load control valve will close once the engine reaches 20% HP rpm and that may result in a hot start. The EEC might auto abort the start in time to avoid an exceedance, but it might not. More: G450 APU Load Control Valve Logic.

  29. TEMP CONTROL Panel . . . SET

  30. Figure: from Haskel's cockpit

  31. CABIN PRESSURE CONTROL PANEL...CHECK / SET
  32. NOTE: Check manual control of the outflow valve on first flight of day.

    The actual procedure is in the G450 AOM 03-03-20 and the QRH NI-3. In a nutshell:

    1. CABIN PRESSURE CONTROL Panel AUTO / SEMI . . . SEMI (Confirm that airplane data can be manually input into the cabin pressure selector. Set the barometric pressure on the cabin pressure selector to a different setting from the plane’s altimeters.)
    2. AUTO / SEMI . . . AUTO (Observe that the barometric pressure changes back to pilot’s PFD altimeter setting.)
    3. FAULT / MANUAL . . . MANUAL (NOTE: Do not close TROV with air on and door closed. Ensure FLIGHT / LANDING switch is in LANDING.
    4. TROV Indication / MAN HOLD Knob . . . CHECK / CLOSE (Rotate the MAN HOLD knob to DESCEND (TROV valve CLOSED), then toward CLIMB (TROV valve OPEN), checking movement of the TROV valve on the position indicator. Verify the amber motor power indicator above the position indicator illuminates as the valve closes and opens. Release the MAN HOLD knob when the valve is approximately midpoint.
    5. FAULT / MANUAL . . . OFF (LIGHTS OUT)
    6. FLIGHT / LANDING . . . LANDING (On the TROV position indicator, verify the TROV moves to the OPEN position.
    7. TROV Indication . . . OPEN
  33. Windshield Heat (2) . . . OFF

  34. ANTI-ICE HTR (4) . . . OFF

  35. EVS WDO HEAT . . . OFF

  36. WSHLD BLWR . . . OFF

  37. CABIN WDO HEAT . . . SELECT ON (LEGEND OFF)

  38. COWL ANTI-ICE (2) / WING ANTI-ICE (2) . . . AUTO

  39. FUEL SYSTEM Panel . . . CHECK
  40. How do you do that? Video here:G450 Fuel System Panel Check.

    Photo: from Haskel's cockpit

    NOTE: If automatic refueling has been accomplished since the last flight, check that the AUTO REFUEL switch, located on the Ground Service Control Panel (LEER), is OFF.

    Where is the ground service control panel? Here:

  41. L MAIN / R MAIN TRU . . . OFF

  42. CABIN / GALLEY MASTERS . . . AS REQUIRED

  43. SATCOM / PHONE / CAMERA MASTERS . . . ON

  44. PWR XFR UNIT (PTU) . . . ARM

  45. AUX PUMP / BRAKE SYSTEM...ARM / CHECKED
  46. This check is in the G450 AOM 03-03-20 and the QRH NI-5. The QRH specifies the check is to be done with "Pilot's Brakes" while the AOM says "Pilot Brakes." Neither give an option to use the copilot's brakes. Is this the intent? I don't know.

    1. Pilot’s Brakes . . . DEPRESS (Verify AUX pressure indicates 3000±300) PSI and applied brake pressure is appropriate to deflection. This check should be accomplished with the Brake System page selected, where applied brake pressure can be observed. Check for a Aux Hydraulic On CAS message is displayed. This procedure checks the automatic latch-on feature of the AUX HYD PUMP OFF/ARM switch. It also permits checking various levels of brake pedal deflection against applied brake pressure. The automatic latch-on feature may be inoperative provided the AUX pump is selected ON for takeoff and landing.
    2. Pilot’s Brakes . . . RELEASE
    3. AUX Pressure Indication . . . 3000±300) PSI
    4. AUX PUMP OFF / ARM . . . NOT ARM (Verify AUX pump shuts off and pressure indicates zero.
    5. AUX PUMP OFF / ARM . . . ARM
  47. COCKPIT LIGHTS MASTER CONTROL . . . AS REQUIRED

  48. SEAT BELT / NO SMOKE . . . ON

  49. CRANK MASTER . . . OFF

  50. START MASTER . . . OFF

  51. COCKPIT LIGHTS Control Panels (Pilot's and Copilot's) . . . SET

  52. EMERG LDG GEAR Handle . . . IN

  53. Audio Control Panel (Pilot's and Copilot's) . . . SET

  54. Cockpit Voice Recorder . . . TEST

  55. ALT SELECT Switch (if installed) . . . AS REQUIRED

  56. Batteries On
  57. CREW / PASSENGER OXYGEN . . . ON / AUTO
  58. What can go wrong here? Popular error one: If the passenger system (bottom) is in AUTO when the crew/passenger system (top) is moved from OFF to ON, the passenger system may deploy the drop-down masks. Popular error two: Rotating the passenger switch clockwise to MAN, deploying the drop-down masks. To avoid both of these problems, make sure both switches are OFF and then go from top to bottom: crew/passenger switch ON then passenger switch AUTO, looking for the word "AUTO" when you do so.

    Batteries On
  59. Crew Oxygen Masks . . . CHECKED
  60. It really isn't that hard, the procedure is in the G450 AOM 03-03-20 and QRH NI-6

    1. On the left door of the regulator / mask compartment, press the test button.
    2. Verify oxygen flow to the mask regulator assembly can be heard.
    3. Verify the flow indicator shows yellow momentarily, then black, indicating the regulator is not leaking. If the blinker remains yellow, check for leakage in the system.
    4. While holding the RESET TEST button in the aft position, push the regulator red PRESS TO TEST button in.
    5. Check that the blinker turns yellow and remains yellow for as long as button is depressed.
    6. Release the RESET TEST button.
    7. Check that the blinker returns to black, showing that the regulator demand mechanism is operating properly.
  61. NOSE WHEEL STEERING POWER . . . OFF

  62. NOSE WHEEL STEERING PEDALS DISC . . . ON

  63. Clocks . . . SET / ZERO

  64. Display Controllers . . . CHECKED
  65. The G450 AOM 03-03-20 and QRH NI-6 simply say "check appropriate pages on the display controller to confirm desired functions have been selected." For the first flight of each day, you also check the RAD ALT, the TONE, and the EGPWS. You might as well check the TCAS while you are here, it appears in a few steps anyway.

    Batteries On

    Figure: 1/6 Menus, from G450 Airplane Operating Manual, §2B-09-00, pg. 12.

  66. Engine . . . SELECT EPR MODE
  67. I've noticed most pilots look at the top of the engine instruments cluster for the "EPR" line, which of course is always there. Your eyes should be a bit south just above the LP line where you should not see "ALT." (This tells you the FADEC is using LP to control the engines, and not EPR. You need to fix this, see G450 FADEC Revert to ALT for how.

  68. V Speeds . . . ENTERED / VERIFY
  69. For airplanes equipped with ASC 906 or 907, the Takeoff Performance Initialization entries for SID climb requirements must be entered individually on each MCDU. Failure to do so may result in variations between FMSs with respect to computed takeoff speeds and takeoff climb data. Additionally, deletion of the SID climb requirements entries must be performed individually on each MCDU in order to return to the displayed “None” default value.

  70. EGPWS (First Flight Of Day) . . . TEST

  71. TCAS (First Flight Of Day) . . . TEST

  72. Altimeters (3) . . . SET & CROSS-CHECKED
  73. NOTE: In order to conduct operations in RVSM airspace, the pilot and copilot altimeters must agree within seventy-five (75) feet of known field elevation, and must also agree within seventy-five (75) feet of each other.

  74. Guidance Panel . . . SET
  75. Batteries On

    There are a lot of techniques but the procedure required in the G450 AOM 03-03-10 simply relate to the four windows:

    1. SPEED . . . CHECK (Set V2 or appropriate speed. Ensure the speed selected is displayed in the SPEED window and on the PFD.
    2. HEADING . . . CHECK (Sync and select the HEADING mode. Rotate the HEADING knob left and right, ensuring the command bars on the PFD follow.
    3. VS-FPA . . . CHECK (Select the Vertical Speed (VS) mode. Rotate the VS knob to increase and decrease vertical speed. Ensure the command bars on the PFD follow.
    4. ALTITUDE . . . CHECK (Set an altitude in the ALTITUDE window. Ensure the altitude selected is displayed on the PFD.
  76. Electronic Charts Effective Dates . . . CHECK
  77. Batteries On

    Photo: from Haskel's cockpit

    NOTE: If the amber “May Contain Outdated Data” statement is present on Charts Master Page, the flight may continue as long as the NOTAMS for the planned airports are checked prior to dispatch or current paper charts are available or if the database is updated prior to dispatch.

    Every now and then the system forgets the serial number and there will be dashes there. You enter the serial number by selecting the keys directly. You can't select the serial number box first, just start typing.

  78. SFD . . . ON / CHECKED
  79. There are no "Check" procedures in the AFM or AOM.

  80. EBDI . . . CHECK / AUTO / HDG 1
  81. There are no "Check" procedures in the AFM or AOM.

  82. STB / FLP Indication . . . CHECKED
  83. Ensure the flap handle agrees with flap position (STB FLP display on PFD) or Flight Controls 2/3 Synoptic Display) to prevent flap movement and undesired load on hydraulic system during engine start. Flaps also have priority when using AUX pump to close door: (Flaps move, door does not).

  84. Gear Handle / Lights . . . DOWN / 3 GREEN

  85. YAW DAMP . . . DISENG
  86. NOTE: Prior to engine start, the amber Yaw Damper Off message is displayed on CAS.

  87. PITCH TRIM . . . ENG / CHECK / SET
  88. NOTE: Set pitch trim for takeoff in accordance with the Table of Recommended Pitch Trim Settings. Verify on Flight Controls synoptic page that pitch trim is in the GREEN band and the digital trim value is also GREEN.

    We tend to carry procedures from previous airplanes with us. Surprisingly, the Gulfstream procedure doesn't call for testing the disconnect switch. The procedure asked for is in the G450 AOM 03-03-10:

    On the first flight of each day, actuate the electrical pitch trim in the UP direction until a blue Elevator Trim Up Limit message is displayed on CAS. Then actuate trim in the DOWN direction until a blue Elevator Trim Down Limit message is displayed. Test each control wheel using both switch halves simultaneously. Next, check each switch half independently in both up and down trim directions. Any pitch trim movement resulting from an independent switch-half actuation indicates a system malfunction and should be corrected before flight. Finally, set the pitch trim to the takeoff setting for the takeoff % MAC Center-of-Gravity (CG) condition.

  89. TERRAIN INHIBIT . . .OFF (NOT DISPLAYED)

  90. Fire Handles . . . IN

  91. Power Levers / Reverse Levers . . . IDLE / DOWN

  92. L / R FUEL CONTROLS . . . OFF
  93. CAUTION: FOR AIRPLANES S/N 4001 THRU 4158 WITHOUT ASC 045 INSTALLED, IF Engine Maintenance LTD MESSAGES ARE PRESENT, CHECK THE CMC. IF THE CAUSE OF THE MESSAGE IS AN EEC / P30(A) OR EEC / P30(B) FAULT, THIS SHOULD BE CONSIDERED A DO NOT DISPATCH CONDITION. MAINTENANCE IS REQUIRED PRIOR TO ENGINE START.

    NOTE: If engine Maintenance LTD message and an Engine ALT Control message are displayed and not associated with an EEC / P30 (A) (B) fault, then cycle the Fuel Control ON for three (3) seconds and OFF. If the messages clear, continue normal operation.

    • If the Engine Maintenance LTD message does not clear, record for maintenance.
    • If the Engine ALT Control message does not clear, attempt to return to EPR mode by selection on the Display Controller. If unable to return to EPR mode, maintenance is required prior to dispatch.

    So you are a G-V type pro and know that the Engine Maintenance LTD, L-R is no big deal, you can dispatch with any blue CAS message. Right? Wrong. There was a time in the classic G-V when that was true. That has never been true in the G450 and the list of possible DO NOT DISPATCH codes possible from a G450 Engine Maintenance LTD, L-R CAS message is growing. Pull out the QRH and check. Oh yes, the AOM does indeed say "Blue CAS maintenance messages allow dispatch as the systems that generate these messages are fault tolerant" [G450 AOM 2A-31-80 ¶4.E.] but that is a cruel lie. Check G450 Warnings, Cautions & Notes for the real story on dispatch with a blue CAS message.

  94. GPWS / GND SPLR FLAP ORIDE . . . OFF

  95. LATERAL CONTROL . . . ON

  96. SPEED BRAKE . . . RETRACT DETENT

  97. Radar (2) . . . STANDBY

  98. STALL BARR . . . ON

  99. ANTI-SKID . . . ON

  100. GND SPLR . . . OFF

  101. ALT FLAP . . . OFF

  102. EMER STAB . . . OFF

  103. Parking Brake / PRESS . . . SET / 3000 PSI

  104. Radio Tuning . . . SET

  105. Cabin Pressure Selector Panel . . . SET

  106. Rudder / Aileron Trim . . . CHECKED / ZERO

  107. Takeoff Briefing . . . ACCOMPLISHED


References

FSI G-450 PTM, FlightSafety Internation Gulfstream G450 Pilot Training Manual, Volume 2, Aircraft Systems, October 2008

Gulfstream G450 Aircraft Operating Manual, Revision 35, April 30, 2013.

Gulfstream G450 Airplane Flight Manual, Revision 36, December 5, 2013