Figure: G450 engine fire/failure on takeoff, from G450 Aircraft Operating Manual, (Historic).
Engine Fire, L-R
Engine Fail, L-R
These CAS messages may or may not appear, depending on the nature of the fire or failure. You may also have yaw if the engine is no longer producing thrust.
A few things to consider:
- Directional Control. The worst time to lose an engine with the opposite engine at rated thrust is just below VMCG. The more speed you have over this, the more lateral control you will have. VMCG, however, is rarely 109 knots as claimed by the flight manual. It is almost always higher at pressure altitudes below 2,000 feet. V1 is always above VMCG in the G450 so just keep V1 in mind and you will be fine. More about this: Technical / Minimum Control Speed Ground (VMCG).
- Rudder. Losing an engine at V1 with the airplane in a three-point attitude you will need less rudder than you think so just keep the airplane pointing down the runway. As you rotate you will need more and more rudder until you are at full rudder. You can expect this until the power comes back once you have leveled off.
- Initial Actions. [G450 Airplane Flight Manual, §04-00-10] Other than retracting the landing gear and silencing aural warnings, take no action until above 400 ft AAL.
- Takeoff Thrust. [G450 Airplane Flight Manual, §01-71-10] The use of takeoff rating is limited to five minutes all engines operating or ten minutes in the event of an engine failure.
- Bank Angle. There is nothing definitive about a maximum bank angle with an engine out once you've climbed above 400 feet. The obstacle clearance determination section does specify 5° maximum but the section includes the word "may."
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual, §05-06-10, ¶1.E.] In addition to criteria governing accelerate-go distance and the items discussed above, the following procedures and assumptions also apply: [. . .] (e) Bank angle not to exceed 5°.
- Engine Shutdown. [G450 Airplane Flight Manual, §04-06-10] Shut engine down when the following occurs:
- Engine fire.
- Extreme engine vibration is felt in airframe.
- Excessive or uncontrollable power loss.
- Sudden increase or decrease in oil pressure beyond limits.
- Sustained high oil temperature above limits.
- Sudden uncontrollable increase in TGT beyond limits.
- Any other condition that indicates the advisability of engine shut down.
NOTE: Engine Vibration Monitoring (EVM) indications alone should not be used as criteria for engine shut down. If EVM exceeds 0.60 LP and / or 0.60 HP, retard power lever to achieve vibration below this value. If vibration is accompanied by other failure indication, shut down engine. In icing conditions, vibrations may exceed alert level without other abnormal indications and are considered normal.
[G450 AOM 06-02-110]
- At V1: when the engine fails, whichever pilot notices the malfunction first should call "Engine Failure."
You can expect the airplane to yaw toward the failed engine, correcting to centerline gives you your best indication of which rudder is needed.
- Maintain runway centerline.
- Autothrottles will disconnect when an engine fails.
- At VR: PM calls "Rotate." PF smoothly rotates up in the flight director pitch cue. Target speed for initial climb out is V2 to V2+10.
A smooth rotation gives you time to increase rudder as required as well as additional acceleration. If the pitch cue is lost for some reason, 10 degrees nose high is a good starting position. If your speed gets away from you and you have an obstacle clearance issue, do not be too aggressive about raising the pitch. You could overshoot and end up with too much pitch and not enough rudder.
- Positive vertical speed and altimeter tape climbing, PM calls "Positive Rate." PF calls "Gear up." The PF moves the gear handle up and selects the ground spoilers off.
- PF calls "MAN Speed" and PM selects MAN speed button on GP.
- PF calls "Flight level change" and PM presses FLCH button on GP.
Aircraft earlier than Certification Echo will command VSE once above 1,500 feet above the airport, selecting manual speed prevents this from happening. Aircraft Certification Foxtrot and later will keep V2 to V2 + 10 until the flaps are retracted, but pressing MAN is still a good technique. If the left engine fails and the flight guidance computer is set to FGC 1, you might get a break power transfer and this could cause the auto speed mode to drop. Yes, there a lot of ifs here, but the technique could save you some heartache.
- PM: At 400 feet above airport level (AAL): Identify the failed engine and convey any other pertinent information to the PF in a very short statement. Advise ATC and declare an emergency. Do not perform any checklists until 1,500 feet AGL. In the case of an engine fire, PIC may decide to command an initial shutdown of the engine and save actual engine fire checklist until 1,500 feet AGL.
- At 1,500 feet AAL and clear of obstacles, PF calls "Select Auto Speed" and PM deselects MAN speed on GP. When MAN speed is deselected; speed target and flight director pitch cue will command acceleration to VSE. Above 1500 Feet AAL and clear of obstacles.
- At V2 + 10 or higher, PF commands "Flaps Up" and PF selects and verifies flaps up.
If flaps do not retract normally, manually select PTU pump and AUX pump ON. If a VFR immediate return is anticipated, the pilot may elect to leave the flaps at 20°. If an IFR immediate return is anticipated, the pilot may elect to leave the flaps at 10°.
- At VSE PF calls "Set MCT" and PF reduces thrust on operating engine to MCT. PIC should designate who will fly the aircraft and who will accomplish the checklists.
- Monitor and maintain fuel load balance. See: Fuel Load Balancing.
- Match the Flight Guidance Computer (FGC) selection to the operating engine: FGC 1 for left engine operating, FGC 2 for right engine operating.
- Set TCAS to TA-Only. In the event of an RA this will force the other aircraft to make twice the correction and allow your aircraft to remain at level. More about this: G450 Abnormal Procedures / TCAS Resolution Advisory.
FSI G450 PTM, FlightSafety International Gulfstream G450 Pilot Training Manual, Volume 2, Aircraft Systems, October 2008
FSI G450 MTM, FlightSafety International Gulfstream G450 Maintenance Training Manual, August 2008
Gulfstream G450 Aircraft Operating Manual, Revision 35, April 30, 2013.
Gulfstream G450 Aircraft Operating Manual (Historical), Revision 24, September 18, 2009.
Gulfstream G450 Airplane Flight Manual, Revision 36, December 5, 2013
Gulfstream G450 Maintenance Manual, Revision 18, Dec 12, 2013