Are these limits really limitations?
Lawyer's answer: Yes because the AFM says they are.
FAA's answer: See lawyer's answer.
Engineer's answer: Many of them are because the various computers helping you think they are and will remind you when you pass one by. (Just try extending the flaps at 251 knots, for example.) In most cases the numbers are conservative and your life will be considerably less stressful if you follow them.
Eddie's answer: In a few cases the numbers are designed to satisfy an FAA regulation — usually 14 CFR 25 — and not understanding that could hurt you. Maneuvering Speed (VA) and Minimum Control Speed Ground (VMCG), for example, are not what most pilots think and applying them blindly could break the airplane and all those aboard. (See Technical / VA and Technical / VMCG.) Some of the statements are just flat out wrong; you cannot dispatch with any blue CAS message, for example. You need to think each limitation through before making a decision.
Everything here is from the references shown below, with a few comments in blue.
|AFN, ADS-C, and CPDLC Operations||Landing Gear|
|Altitude||Oxygen & Pressurization Systems|
|APU||People & Places|
|CAS Messages||Position Sensors|
|Enhanced Vision System||RNP Operations|
|Flight Controls and Automation||Synthetic Vision|
|Hydraulics System||VGP Mode|
|Ice & Rain||Weight, Center of Gravity, and Flight Load Acceleration|
G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-34-30 ¶6.] Airplanes having the latest approved version of the Honeywell PRIMUS EPIC system, comply with the interoperability requirements of RTCA D0-258A for AFN and ADS-C operations. Additionally, airplanes equipped with ASC 059 (or later approved Revisions) demonstrate compliance with RTCA DO-258A for CPDLC operations.
NOTE: This constitutes engineering approval only. Operational approval must be obtained from the local authority (FSDO) prior to using ADS-C and / or CPDLC capability. Requirements and operational guidance are found in AC 120-70x.
If you have enhanced navigation and an LOA or Ops Spec, you are good to go. See International Operations / CPDLC.
Figure: Altitude - Mach Flight Envelope, from G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-03-40, figure 1-2.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-03-40]
(VFE/MFE) Maximum Flaps Extended 10°: 250 KCAS/0.60 MT
(VFE/MFE) Maximum Flaps Extended 20°: 220 KCAS/0.60 MT
(VFE/MFE) Maximum Flaps Extended 39°: 180 KCAS/0.60 MT
(VLE/MLE) Maximum Landing Gear Extended: 250 KCAS/0.70 MT
(VLO/MLO) Maximum Landing Gear Operation: 225 KCAS/0.70 MT
(VLO-alternate) Maximum Landing Gear Alternate Operation: 175 KCAS
Maximum Tire: 195.5 knots
(VMCA) Minimum Control Speed Air: 106 KCAS
(VMCL) Minimum Control Speed Landing: 99 KCAS
(VMCG) Minimum Control Speed Ground: 109 KCAS
This number reflects a specific set of certification conditions of Gulfstream's choosing and is actually too low for the aircraft at sea level. Your V1 will always be higher so make sure you keep the nose wheel steering in mind until then. See Technical / VMCG for the real story behind VMCG.
(VA) Maneuvering Speed: 206 KCAS
This number applies only to specific weights, configurations, and altitudes. The real numbers for most of your time down low for takeoff and landing are considerably lower. See Technical / VA for an explanation of why.
(VMO) Maximum Operating Speed 0 to 28,000': 340 KCAS
(MMO) Maximum Operating Speed 28,000' to 34,000': 0.85 MT
(MMO) Maximum Operating Speed 34,000' to 43,500': 0.88 MT
(MMO) Maximum Operating Speed 43,500' to 45,000': 0.874 MT
Maximum Mach Trim/Elevator Trim Inoperative: 0.75 MT
Turbulence Penetration (below 10,000'): 240 KCAS
Turbulence Penetration (above 10,000'): 270 KCAS/0.75 MT (whichever less)
Maximum speed with emergency stabilizer trim armed, autopilot engaged and a jammed elevator: 270 KCAS/0.75 MT
Yaw Damper Inoperative Speed
|Fuel Quantity (1000 lb)||8||10||12||14||16||18||20||22||24||26||28||30|
|Minimum Airspeed (KCAS)||96||107||117||126||135||143||151||158||165||172||178||184|
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-03-30]
Maximum operating: 45,000'
Maximum operating with yaw damper and Mach trim compensator inoperative: 41,000'
Maximum operating with flaps 10 or 20: 25,000'Maximum operating with flaps 39: 20,000'
Maximum operating with landing gear extended: 20,000'
Figure: APU Operating Envelope, from G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-49-40, figure 1-8.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-49-10]
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-49-20]
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-49-30] The APU generator can deliver 100% electrical power (40 kVA) on the ground or in flight from sea level to 37,000 ft (maximum altitudes for APU operations). APU generator loading will be limited to 85% between 30,000 ft and 37,000 ft at speeds greater than Mach .85.
APU Start Envelope: Guaranteed to 37,000'
More about it: G450 Systems / APU.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-45-50] Amber CAS messages are DO NOT DISPATCH messages. Blue CAS maintenance messages allow dispatch as the systems that generate these messages are fault tolerant. Dispatch with an active amber or blue message shall be with reference to the MEL.
This simply isn't true, there are at least seven blue CAS messages you cannot dispatch with and the list seems to be growing. See G450 Abnormal Procedures / Warnings, Cautions & Notes.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-134-110]
If you have enhanced navigation, the electronic charts in PlaneView are all you need. Otherwise, you will need either a backup tablet or iPad with an authorized chart application, such as Jeppesen's FlightDeck, or paper charts to back up your departure, destination, alternate, and equal time point airports. For more about this, refer to AC 91-78 and AC 120-76C.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-24-10]
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-24-20] The Integrated Drive Generator (IDG) electrical load is limited to 45% (18 kVA) when ambient temperature is greater than 110°F / 43.5°C in order to maintain steady state fuel temperatures below 95°C.
The G450 IDG has an independent integral oil system that is cooled using a dedicated fuel cooled oil cooler which uses LP fuel to cool its oil. If the IDG oil gets too hot it could impact engine operation. See G450 Systems / AC Power Sources for an in depth explanation.
More about it: G450 Systems / Electrical.
G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-34-90]
The rules on how low you can go are laid out pretty well in 14 CFR 91.175 but you should know how they impact your instrument approach capabilities. More about this: Normal Procedures & Techniques / Enhanced Flight Vision Systems.
G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-34-60]
EGPWS. Pilots are authorized to deviate from their ATC clearance when complying with an EGPWS warning.
EGPWS. Terrain display shall be selected off when within 15 nm of landing at an airport when: the airport doesn't have a published IAP; the longest runway is less than 3,500'; the airport is not in the database.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-27-30]
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-22-30]
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-22-70] Use of the autothrottle during single engine approaches is prohibited.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-22-20]
Coupled Go-Around : Single-engine autopilot coupled go-around is not approved.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-22-60] Maximum speed with the emergency stabilizer armed with the autopilot engaged and a jammed elevator is 270 KCAS / M 0.75.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-22-10]
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-27-20] Speed brakes are not approved for extension with flaps at 39° (DOWN) or with landing gear extended in flight.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-27-10]
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-34-30]
*Approaches above, suffixed with an asterisk, may be flown with FMS guidance provided the appropriate civil aviation authority has approved such operations. See that country’s Aeronautical Information Publication, or AIP, to confirm approval. In the US, AC 90-108 advises that RNAV systems cannot be used as a substitute for the navaid lateral guidance during the final approach segment.
NOTE: EGPWS Mode 6 must be operable and the associated audio call outs not inhibited, when performing RNAV (GPS) approaches to LPV minima.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-03-80]
CAUTION: THE ENGINE WILL ONLY RUN ON SUCTION FUEL FEED AT OR BELOW 20,000 FT. ABOVE 20,000 FT, THE ENGINE WILL RUN ERRATICALLY AND FLAME OUT IF THE CROSSFLOW IS NOT OPEN WITH AT LEAST ONE BOOST PUMP ON.
See G450 Abnormal Procedures / Fuel Unbalanced for balancing procedures.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-28-10]
G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-28-20] All boost pumps must be on during flight except for fuel balancing.
G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-28-30] Maximum: Fuel temperatures of +54°C or greater will cause a Red Fuel Tank Temperature message to be displayed on the Crew Advisory System (CAS).
G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-28-30] Minimum: For airplanes S/N 4001- 4244 without ASC 908B, 909 or 910 (or later approved revisions):
G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-28-30] Minimum: For airplanes S/N 4001-4244 with ASC 908B, 909 or 910 (or later approved revisions) and 4245 and Sub:
If your fuel temperature is cold enough to generate a CAS message, you should monitor the temperature all the way to landing. Fuel tends to adhere to its surroundings best at -12°C and the increasing fuel flow demands once the aircraft is configured for landing has been known to clog fuel filters. See: Mishaps / British Airways 38.
More about: G450 Systems / Fuel.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-29-10]
Maximum reservoir quantities (pressurized) as indicated on EICAS:
Accumulator pre-charge: 1200 psi @ 70°F ± 25 psi per 10°F Δ.
More about: G450 Systems / Hydraulics.
G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-30-10]
G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-30-20] Operation of wing anti-icing is required if icing conditions are imminent, or immediately upon detection of ice formation on wings, winglets, or windshield edges.
Figure: Temperature Range for Cowl Anti-icing, from G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-30-30.
More about: G450 Systems / Ice & Rain.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-34-10]
There is no provision for IRS “Down Mode Align”.
NOTE: Honeywell HG2100AB and HG2100BB Series IRS equipment installed in the Gulfstream G450 has been certified for alignment to 78° Latitudes. For alignment between 70° and 78° Latitude, fifteen (15) minute alignment time is required. For flight above 73° N and 60° S Latitude, EFIS heading information must be switched from magnetic (MAG) to TRUE due to loss of valid MAG heading from the IRS.
There are no restrictions for in air automatic realignment – Align in Motion (AIM). However, the AIM alignment time may be less than 10 minutes or more than 20 minutes, if any of the following conditions are present either alone or in combination:
NOTE: Airplane maneuvers involving changes in heading reduces alignment time. Alignment time increases with latitude, i.e., minimum time is at the equator and maximum is at the pole.
G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-32-10] Takeoff is permitted with anti-skid inoperative, provided the runway is dry, ground spoilers are operative, 20° flaps are used, and the cowl and wing anti-icing systems are not used. Dispatch shall be with reference to the MEL.
G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-32-20] Ground operation of landing lights is limited to five (5) minutes.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-03-10]
The aircraft is definitely okay for extended operations within 180 minutes of the nearest suitable airport and can go even further. Under 14 CFR 91 you could technically venture further away without any formal approval but you will need Operations Specifications to allow you to do this under 14 CFR 135. See International Operations / Extended Operations (ETOPS) for more on this.
"Polar Navigation" has morphed into "High Latitude Operations" in the last few years. Either way, they present a few challenges you need to consider. For 14 CFR 135 you will need Operations Specification approval. For 14 CFR 91 you should seriously consider taking the same precautions. See International Operations / High Latitude Operations for more on this.
The "without limitation" statement needs to be tempered by the fact the only place you will find these RF legs is on an RNP AR, formerly called RNP SAAAR, approach and you do need an LOA or Operations Specification approval for that. See AC 90-101, RNP Procedures with SAAAR, for more about that.
NOTE: Appropriate operational approval must be obtained prior to using ADS-C and/or CPDLC- FANS 1/A capability. Requirements and operational guidance are found in AC 120-70x.
Note: The aircraft ATC data link system has been demonstrated to comply with the applicable safety and performance requirements of EUROCAE ED-120, the interoperability requirements of ED-110B and with AMC 20-11. This AFM entry does not, by itself, constitute an operational approval where such approval is required.
For more about this, see International Operations / CPDLC.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-21-10]
Figure: Oxygen Departure Pressures, from G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-35-10, Figure 1-7.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-35-20]
Wait a minute! The G-550 is certified for flight to 51,000' and the G450 to 45,000' - so why are the masks only good to 40,000'? Aircraft certified under 14 CFR 25.841 must be designed so that occupants will not be exposed to a cabin pressure altitude that exceeds the following after decompression from any failure condition not shown to be extremely improbable — Gulfstream seems to believe it is extremely improbably that you will not be able to get the airplane below 40,000' cabin altitude.
More about this: G450 Systems / Oxygen.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-01-10] Minimum flight crew is a pilot and copilot.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-01-20] Total number of occupants shall not exceed 22. The number of passengers shall not exceed 19 as determined by emergency exit requirements, nor shall exceed the number for which seating accommodations approved for takeoff and landing are provided.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-02-10]
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-02-20]
G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-34-30 ¶7.] The selected sensor for the FMS position is chosen by comparing the EPU values of all available sensors that have not been deselected by the pilot, and choosing the sensor with the lowest value. Sensor accuracy is the produced Figure of Merit (FOM) for GPS and Hybrid IRU, and the computed EPU for IRS drift and radio position. Once a sensor is selected, that sensor remains selected unless the EPU of another sensor is at least 5% lower than the EPU of the selected sensor. For an instrument approach selected from the NAV database, the selected sensor functions in one of two ways: When the database record indicates that the chosen approach has a required sensor (e.g., GPS required), then that sensor is locked as the selected sensor at three miles from the FAF and remains the selected sensor throughout the approach. When the database record does not indicate that the chosen approach has a required sensor, the sensor with the best accuracy when the aircraft is three miles from the FAF is locked as the selected sensor for the remainder of the approach.
Figure: Engine Operation, from G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-71-10]
The 60 kts. limitation on the thrust reversers is most likely to prevent damage to the flaps caused by reversed airflow at slower speeds, but there are other theories. See: G450 Systems / Powerplant / Exhaust, for more.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-71-20]
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-71-30] Minimum acceptable power for takeoff is shown in Section 5: Normal Takeoff Planning. Takeoff in the ALTERNATE (LP) control mode is prohibited.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-71-40]
While static on the ground, stabilized engine operation between 60% and 72% LP is prohibited. Any acceleration through this band must not exceed 10 seconds. The FADEC will not keep the engine out of the 60% to 72% LP range unless the parking brake is set.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-78-10]
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-79-10]
Oil Inlet Temperature
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-79-20]
Figure: Airstart Envelope, from G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-80-10, figure 1-9.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-80-10]
Starter Duty: 3 minutes on, 15 seconds off, 3 times, then 15 minutes
More about this: G450 Systems / Powerplant.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-34-20]
Do not operate radar during refueling nor when within 300 ft of refueling operations.
Do not operate radar within 49 ft of ground personnel (with 24" antenna installed).
More about this: G450 Systems / Radar.
G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-34-30 ¶5.] Aircraft complies with RNP RNAV Operations as defined in RTCA / DO-236B and DO-283, have been demonstrated with the following limitations and exceptions:
NOTE: The FMS RNP demonstration does not constitute an operational approval.
More about this: International Operations / WGS-84.
Don't do this unless you do not have GPS — two negatives there, okay, try this: only do this if you don't have GPS.
The operators manual has the exact same statement but no such procedures.
|Assumed Guidance Mode||Minimum RNP||Assumed|
|LNAV with Autopilot||≤0.30||0.30||0.125|
|LNAV with Flight Director||0.30||0.32||0.25|
G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-34-110]
In order to satisfy the performance standards set forth in FAA AC 91-85, the following equipment and instruments must be installed and operative prior to dispatch into RVSM airspace:
|ATA||Equipment||No. Installed||No. Required for RVSM|
|22-7||Flight Guidance Computers||2||1|
|34-8||ATC Transponder and Automatic Altitude Reporting Systems||2||1*|
|34-23||Altitude Alerting System||1||1|
|34-33||Air Data Computers / Systems (see chart)||3||2|
* One transponder may be inoperative provided that both the altitude reporting systems are operative on the remaining transponder.
NOTE: Refer to the MEL for other basic dispatch capability.
Figure: RVSM Envelope, from G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-34 Figure 1-6
G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-34-170]
Aircraft without ASC 059 must either have backup paper charts or a Class 1 or Class 2 EFB readily available to the flight crew.
SVS must be deselected in non-WGS-84 countries.
G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-34-50]
TCAS. All RA/TA aural messages inhibited at a radio altitude less than 500' +/- 100' climbing and descending.
TCAS Pilot's are authorized to deviate from ATC to the extent necessary to comply with an RA.
TCAS. Compliance with RA required unless unsafe to do so.
TCAS. When single engine, select TA only.
Figure: Altitude / Temperature Operating Envelope, from G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-03-20, Figure 1-1.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-03-20] Minimum and maximum temperatures approved for operation are shown in [the figure]
NOTE: Inadvertent encounters with atmospheric conditions where the SAT is colder than -70C can occur. In order to not exceed structure and equipment design temperature limits, the following minimum Mach schedule shall be maintained until the airplane can return to operations within the envelope.
|Min - M||0.67||0.71||0.76||0.80||0.84||0.87|
So can you fly for extended periods below -70°C as long as you keep your Mach number up? It is unclear. I once spent a few hours at -75°C and M 0.80 only to have the flaps freeze in the up position and ended up flying a no flap into Madrid, Spain. Anecdotal? Sure. You decide. I now read the note to say you need to return to a warmer temperature.
G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-34-180]
VGP requires the approach be flown from a "Vectors" transition, or the entire approach be flown.
Figure: Zero Fuel Gross Weight Center of Gravity Envelope, from G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-03-70, figure 1-3.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-03-70] The allowable Center Of Gravity (CG) range is a function of gross weight as shown in [the figure], Zero Fuel Gross Weight Center Of Gravity Envelope chart. Zero fuel gross weight CG must be within the allowable zero fuel gross weight CG envelope. The fueled airplane CG will then be within limits for all fuel loads.
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-03-50]
[G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-03-60]
Max Zero Fuel Weight: 49,000 lbs. (48,000 lbs with ASC 008)
Max Landing Weight: 66,000 lbs. (Without ASC 007C)
Max Takeoff Weight: 73,900 lbs. (74,600 lbs with ASC 016)
Max Ramp Weight: 74,300 lbs. (75,000 lbs with ASC 016)
[G450 Aircraft Service Change 007C, pg. 1] This service change provides instructions to install a placard in the cockpit to reduce the Maximum Landing Gross Weight to 58,500 pounds for Category C instrument approach operations. With this ASC incorporated, along with With this ASC incorporated, along with the placard and Airplane Flight Manual Supplement (AFMS), the aircraft must be operated at the reduced maximum landing weight limitation as defined by the AFMS. If operations at standard (Pre ASC) maximum landing weight limitation are desired, the placard shall be removed from the aircraft by maintenance action, including log book entry, and the AFMS shall be removed from the flight manual.
If you have the sheets of paper known as ASC 007C on your aircraft, your maximum landing weight is 58,500 lbs. At least that's how our FSDO interprets it. See G450 Normal Procedures & Techniques / Approach Category for more about this.
G450 Airplane Flight Manual §1-34-30 ¶4.] When operating in non-WGS-84 airspace or in countries where the airspace is partially compliant with WGS-84, the FMS with GPS position updating meets the required navigation accuracy and may be used for SIDS, STARS and en route navigation. When flying ILS, VOR or ADF approaches and missed approach procedures in these two situations, the GPS updating does not need to be inhibited or deselected provided the appropriate raw data is used throughout the approach and missed approach as the primary navigation reference. For countries that are partially WGS-84 compliant, when RNAV (GNSS) approaches are offered, these approaches may be flown using the FMS with GPS position updating provided the approach chart is annotated with “PANS OPS”.
More about this: International Operations / WGS-84.
14 CFR 91, Title 14: Aeronautics and Space, General Operating and Flight Rules, Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
Advisory Circular 20-129, Airworthiness Approval of Vertical Navigation (VNAV) Systems for use in the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) and Alaska, 9/12/88, U.S. Department of Transportation
Advisory Circular 20-138D, Positioning and Navigation Systems, 5/8/12, U.S. Department of Transportation
Advisory Circular 25-15, Airworthiness Approval of Flight Management Systems in Transport Category Airplanes, 11/20/89, U.S. Department of Transportation
Advisory Circular 90-96A, Approval of U.S. Operators and Aircraft to Operate Under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) in European Airspace Designated for Basic Area Navigation (B-RNAV) and Precision Area Navigation (P-RNAV), 1/13/05, U.S. Department of Transportation
Advisory Circular 90-100A, U.S. Terminal and En Route Area Navigation (RNAV) Operations, 03/01/07, U.S. Department of Transportation
Advisory Circular 90-101, Approval Guidance for RNP Procedures with SAAAR, 12/15/05, U.S. Department of Transportation
Advisory Circular 90-105A, Approval Guidance for RNP Operations and Barometric Vertical Navigation in the U.S. National Airspace System and in Oceanic and Remote Continental Airspace, 3/7/2016, U.S. Department of Transportation
The Gulfstream material refers to AC 90-105, which has been replaced by AC 90-105A
Advisory Circular 90-108, Use of Suitable Area Navigation (RNAV) Systems on Conventional Routes and Procedures, 3/3/11, U.S. Department of Transportation
Advisory Circular 91-78, Use of Class 1 or Class 2 Electronic Flight Bag (EFB), 7/20/07, U.S. Department of Transportation
Advisory Circular 120-70C, Operational Authorization Process for Use of Data Link Communication System, 8/3/15, U.S. Department of Transportation
Advisory Circular 120-76C, Guidelines for the Certification, Airworthiness, and Operational Use of Electronic Flight Bags, 5/9/14, U.S. Department of Transportation
Flight Standardization Board (FSB) Report, Gulfstream GIV-X, G-V, GV-AP, Revision 8, 08/01/2012
Gulfstream G450 Aircraft Service Change 007C, Maximum Landing Gross Weight, 58,500 pounds, Category C, Provisions, October 26, 2011
Gulfstream G450 Aircraft Service Change Number 059B, Enhanced Navigation, December 22, 2011
Gulfstream G450 Aircraft Service Change Number 072, Data Link Recording, December 22, 2011
Gulfstream G450 Aircraft Service Change Number 079, Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) out Installation, April 12, 2013
Gulfstream G450 Aircraft Service Change Number 084, Mandates Package (CPDLC / ADS-B Out), June 3, 2013
Gulfstream G450 Aircraft Service Change Number 908C, Planeview Master Operating System Software Update, March 12, 2012
Gulfstream G450 Airplane Flight Manual, Revision 36, December 5, 2013
Gulfstream G450 Operating Manual Supplement, G-450-OMS-02, Extended Operations (ETOPS) Guide, Revision 2, April 2, 2009
Gulfstream Operational Information Supplement for G350, G450, G500, G550 Airplanes, GAC-OIS-07: RNP SAAAR Operations Including RNP <0.3, Revision 1 (Reissue), June 18, 2010
ICAO Global Operational Data Link Document (GOLD), International Civil Aviation Organization, Second Edition, 26 April 2013