Noise abatement has gotten easier but you still need to pay attention to local rules to stay out of trouble. Here's a quick primer:
I like to keep things simple so I use the Gulfstream JAA Close-in Noise Abatement Procedure for all my noise abatement needs. It provides the greatest noise relief, it is a Gulfstream recommended procedure for JAA crews, it is easy to do, and since I use it routinely I don't have to relearn it every time I need it.
Everything here is from the references shown below, with a few comments in an alternate color.
Chapters 2 through 4 list evolving ICAO noise standards over time. These chapters are where we get "stages" of noise compliance. An aircraft that complies with chapter 2, for example, is "Stage 2 compliant." The G450 complies with chapter 4, hence our Stage 4 designation. There really isn't a "Stage 1" compliance, we simply refer to really noisy airplanes as Stage 1.
[14 CFR 36 Appendix B §Section B36.5, Maximum Noise Levels
The U.S. FAA "Stage" noise standards are similar to the ICAO "Chapter" noise standards:
Here is an example manufacturer noise data sheet, what the inspector walking down the ramp is going to ask you to present:
As you can see, a Gulfstream G450 meets ICAO Chapter 4 and FAA Stage 4 standards.
[ICAO Doc 8168, Vol I §7, ¶3.2.3.b.] The noise abatement procedure specified by an operator for any one aeroplane type should be the same for all aerodromes.
Life has gotten easier because of this new ICAO stipulation, we can no longer have noise abatement procedures tailored to individual airports. Gulfstream has decided the normal procedures used in day-to-day operations are the procedures you will use to meet noise abatement requirements. Unless you are operating under JAA/EASA, you don't need to know any other noise abatement procedure. Or do you? First we'll cover the Noise Information Manual procedures and then move on to JAA/EASA.
Figure: Highest Ranked Airports with Noise Restrictions, from Gulfstream Noise Information Manual, pg. US-5.
The idea behind the NIM used to be that if the airport was listed, read the notes and possibly use a different flight procedure, otherwise use normal approach and departure procedures.
The idea behind the NIM now is if the airport is listed, you may have some restrictions on operating there. If the airport isn't, you needn't worry about it. This is supposed to work all over the world, but some European airports may not agree.
See below, JAA/EASA Noise Abatement.
[Gulfstream Noise Information Manual, pg. US-7.]
[Gulfstream Noise Information Manual, pg. US-7.]
Fly the approach at 39° flaps, gear down.
Figure: Bedford, Massachusetts from Gulfstream Noise Information Manual, pg. US-10.
At Bedford, Hanscom Field, MA a G450 can fly normal takeoff and approach procedures but does have night time reporting requirements:
Figure: Teterboro, New Jersey, from Gulfstream Noise Information Manual, pg. US-33.
The NIM notes for Teterboro contains two pages of stuff for GII and GIII but also includes this gem:
The G450 cannot meet the takeoff limit from Runway 24 from 2200 to 0700. If you violate this, it could mean a two-year ban on all operations at Teterboro.
More on this here: KTEB.
Figure: Lake Tahoe Airport, California, from Gulfstream Noise Information Manual, pg. US-16.
At Lake Tahoe Stage 3 aircraft are permitted "single event" from 8 AM to 8 PM, but the listed noise level limits are lower than the G450's capability. In this case a phone call would be in order:
Gulfstream issues a JAA Operating Manual Supplement, GAC-OMS-02, Noise Abatement Departure Procedures for JAA/EASA Operators, that offers two other noise abatement departure procedures. Just because you aren't flying a JAA/EASA airplane doesn't mean you can't fly these procedures. In fact, there are locations around the world where it will be to your advantage.
Figure: LFPB Airport Briefing, from Jeppesen JeppView.
At LFPB, for example, the Gulfstream Noise Information Manual does not offer any procedural information. Page 30-1P2 of the LFPB Jeppesen pages are not so silent:
Before GAC-OMS-02 we would fly the old NBAA procedure to 3,000 feet in hopes it would beat the LFPB noise sensors. It did. But we knew flying a normal takeoff, cleaning up at 400' AGL, was risking a violation. Now, using the JAA NADP1 (shown below), we know we will be okay.
To that end, the JAA supplement offers two noise abatement procedures.
[GAC-OMS-02, pg. 4]
This procedure is easier than the description makes it seem. Simply use normal takeoff procedures, leave the flaps set, select manual speeds before 800' and auto speeds at 3,000' for a normal clean up. So what happens when you do this?
Note: the display controller will indicate VREF for 20° flaps when the flap handle is set to 20° reassuring you that you can retract the flaps safely. The second the flap handle goes to 0° the VREF increases for a clean configuration and you will appear to be below VREF. Of course you are not.
See the video: ELLX Takeoff Runway 06 for demo of these procedures at Luxembourg.
[GAC-OMS-02, pg. 5.]
14 CFR 36, Title 14: Noise Standards: Aircraft Type and Airworthiness Certification, Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
Gulfstream JAA Operating Manual Supplement for GIV, GIV-SP, G400, G300, G450, GV, G500, and G550 Airplanes, Supplement Number GAC-OMS-02: Noise Abatement Departure Procedures for JAA/EASA Operators, Basic Issue, June 25, 2008
Gulfstream Noise Information Manual, Revision 12, Sept 1, 2011
ICAO Annex 16 - Environmental Protection - Vol I - Aircraft Noise, International Standards and Recommended Practices, Annex 16 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, Vol I, July 2008
ICAO Doc 8168 - Aircraft Operations - Vol I - Flight Procedures, Procedures for Air Navigation Services, International Civil Aviation Organization, 2006
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