Noise Abatement Procedures
Gulfstream G450 Flight Procedures
Noise abatement has gotten easier but you still need to pay attention to local rules to stay out of trouble. Here's a quick primer:
- Read the Gulfstream Noise Information Manual and the Jeppesen airport pages to see what restrictions exist. You might not be able to go at all, or you may be restricted to certain runways or certain hours of operations.
- If there are listed noise abatement procedures, try to apply JAA/EASA Operating Supplement procedures NADP 1 or NADP 2, shown below. Doing so gives you a Gulfstream-approved and flight tested procedure.
- The airplane is so overpowered that the 17° limit on the command bars for takeoff will leave you accelerating beyond V2+10 at most weights. You can either retract the flaps and accelerate to 200 knots or keep the flaps and continue the climb to 3,000' or as required by the procedure.
- Gulfstream now recommends going FLEX when you can. I've always thought the more power the faster you climb and the less noise you make. But Gulfstream says FLEX is good.
- Finally remember that the U.S. FAA and the ICAO all agree that when the weather is bad, when you have an emergency, or whenever you think it is safer to throw noise abatement out of the window, you should do so. If you can make that decision before engine start, that would be even better. (No sense getting kicked out of Teterboro for two years when you could have prevented it.)
Chapters 2 through 4 list evolving ICAO noise standards over time. These chapters are where we get "stages" of noise compliance. An aircraft that complies with chapter 2, for example, is "Stage 2 compliant." The G450 complies with chapter 4, hence our Stage 4 designation. There really isn't a "Stage 1" compliance, we simply refer to really noisy airplanes as Stage 1.
- Subsonic jet aeroplanes, type certificate before 6 October 1977
- At lateral noise measurement point: 106 EPNdB for aeroplanes with maximum certificated take-off mass of 400,000 kg or over, decreasing linearly with the logarithm of the mass down to 97 EPNdB at 35,000 kg, after which the limits remain constant.
- At fly over noise measurement point (Aeroplanes with two engines or less): 104 EPNdB for aeroplanes with maximum certificated take-off mass of 325,000 kg or over, decreasing linearly with the logarithm of the mass at the rate of 4 EPNdB per halving on mass down to 93 EPNdB, after which the limits remain constant.
- At approach noise measurement point: 108 EPNdB for aeroplanes with maximum certificated take-off mass of 280,000 kg or over, decreasing linearly with the logarithm of the mass down to 101 EPNdB at 35,000 kg, after which the limits remain constant.
- At lateral noise measurement point: 103 EPNdB for aeroplanes with maximum certificated take-off mass of 400,000 kg or over, decreasing linearly with the logarithm of the mass down to 94 EPNdB at 35,000 kg, after which the limits remain constant.
- At fly over noise measurement point (Aeroplanes with two engines or less): 101 EPNdB for aeroplanes with maximum certificated take-off mass of 325,000 kg or over, decreasing linearly with the logarithm of the mass at the rate of 4 EPNdB per halving on mass down to 89 EPNdB, after which the limits remain constant.
- At approach noise measurement point: 105 EPNdB for aeroplanes with maximum certificated take-off mass of 280,000 kg or over, decreasing linearly with the logarithm of the mass down to 98 EPNdB at 35,000 kg, after which the limits remain constant.
- Maximum noise levels can be exceeded at one or two measurement points, but the sum of the excesses cannot be greater than 3 EPNdB, no single point can be greater than 2 EPNdB than the limit, and the excesses can be offset by corresponding reductions at other points.
- The standards are the same as Chapter 3 but the trade offs are stricter.
- The maximum permitted noise level cannot be exceeded at any of the measurement points.
- The sum of the three measurement points shall be at least 10 EPNdB less than the sum of the standard at each point.
- The sum of any two measurement points shall be at least 2 EPNdB less than the maximum noise levels at each point.
[14 CFR 36 Appendix B §Section B36.5, Maximum Noise Levels
The U.S. FAA "Stage" noise standards are similar to the ICAO "Chapter" noise standards:
- ICAO Annex 16, Chapter 2 — 14 CFR 36 "Stage 2"
- ICAO Annex 16, Chapter 3 — 14 CFR 36 "Stage 3"
- ICAO Annex 16, Chapter 4 — 14 CFR 36 "Stage 4"
Gulfstream G450 Noise Performance
Here is an example manufacturer noise data sheet, what the inspector walking down the ramp is going to ask you to present:
As you can see, a Gulfstream G450 meets ICAO Chapter 4 and FAA Stage 4 standards.
Noise Abatement Procedures
[ICAO Doc 8168, Vol I §7, ¶3.2.3.b.] The noise abatement procedure specified by an operator for any one aeroplane type should be the same for all aerodromes.
Life has gotten easier because of this new ICAO stipulation, we can no longer have noise abatement procedures tailored to individual airports. Gulfstream has decided the normal procedures used in day-to-day operations are the procedures you will use to meet noise abatement requirements. Unless you are operating under JAA/EASA, you don't need to know any other noise abatement procedure. Or do you? First we'll cover the Noise Information Manual procedures and then move on to JAA/EASA.
Gulfstream Noise Information Manual (NIM) Methodology
Figure: Highest Ranked Airports with Noise Restrictions, from Gulfstream Noise Information Manual, pg. US-5.
The idea behind the NIM used to be that if the airport was listed, read the notes and possibly use a different flight procedure, otherwise use normal approach and departure procedures.
The idea behind the NIM now is if the airport is listed, you may have some restrictions on operating there. If the airport isn't, you needn't worry about it. This is supposed to work all over the world, but some European airports may not agree.
See below, JAA/EASA Noise Abatement.
Normal Autothrottle Takeoff
[Gulfstream Noise Information Manual, pg. US-7.]
- Utilize EPR (Min/Rated or Flex) and 20° flaps for all takeoffs. Align the aircraft on the runway as close to the departure end as feasible. Advance power levers, if required, engage and release brakes. At VR, rotate aircraft to a takeoff pitch attitude as directed by the PFD (not to exceed 15°). Accelerate through VFS.
- With a positive rate of climb established, retract the landing gear. At 400 feet select Flaps to 0°, select navigation guidance mode and FLCH, and the performance computer will command engine thrust to climb power EPR.
- At 3,000 ft AGL, if flaps have not been retracted, retract the flaps and execute the SID or departure instructions. Engage the autopilot as desired.
Normal Approach Procedure
[Gulfstream Noise Information Manual, pg. US-7.]
Fly the approach at 39° flaps, gear down.
Example Airport: KBED
Figure: Bedford, Massachusetts from Gulfstream Noise Information Manual, pg. US-10.
At Bedford, Hanscom Field, MA a G450 can fly normal takeoff and approach procedures but does have night time reporting requirements:
Example Airport: KTEB
Figure: Teterboro, New Jersey, from Gulfstream Noise Information Manual, pg. US-33.
The NIM notes for Teterboro contains two pages of stuff for GII and GIII but also includes this gem:
The G450 cannot meet the takeoff limit from Runway 24 from 2200 to 0700. If you violate this, it could mean a two-year ban on all operations at Teterboro.
More on this here: KTEB.
Example Airport: KTVL
Figure: Lake Tahoe Airport, California, from Gulfstream Noise Information Manual, pg. US-16.
At Lake Tahoe Stage 3 aircraft are permitted "single event" from 8 AM to 8 PM, but the listed noise level limits are lower than the G450's capability. In this case a phone call would be in order:
JAA/EASA Noise Abatement
Gulfstream issues a JAA Operating Manual Supplement, GAC-OMS-02, Noise Abatement Departure Procedures for JAA/EASA Operators, that offers two other noise abatement departure procedures. Just because you aren't flying a JAA/EASA airplane doesn't mean you can't fly these procedures. In fact, there are locations around the world where it will be to your advantage.
Figure: LFPB Airport Briefing, from Jeppesen JeppView.
At LFPB, for example, the Gulfstream Noise Information Manual does not offer any procedural information. Page 30-1P2 of the LFPB Jeppesen pages are not so silent:
Before GAC-OMS-02 we would fly the old NBAA procedure to 3,000 feet in hopes it would beat the LFPB noise sensors. It did. But we knew flying a normal takeoff, cleaning up at 400' AGL, was risking a violation. Now, using the JAA NADP1 (shown below), we know we will be okay.
To that end, the JAA supplement offers two noise abatement procedures.
Noise Abatement Departure Procedure 1 - Close In Noise Reduction
[GAC-OMS-02, pg. 4]
- After takeoff from the departure airport, the initial climb speed shall not be less than V2+10 kt. Automatic speed targets will produce the speed target of V2+10 kt as a factor of normal rotation rates at any takeoff weight.
- On reaching an altitude at or above 240 m (800 ft) above airport level, select MANual under the Guidance Panel Speed window then select climb power by selecting VNAV or FLCH on the Guidance Panel. The autothrottle will then adjust power to the climb rating. Maintain a climb speed of V2+10 to 20 kt with flaps in the take-off configuration. Should the Standard Instrument Departure Procedure require a turn any time during the departure, maintain a minimum speed of V2+10 kt while in the turn.
- At no more than an altitude equivalent to 900 m (3,000 ft) above airport level, while maintaining a positive rate of climb, deselect MANual under the Guidance Panel Speed window and accelerate and retract flaps on schedule. Limit bank angles to 15 degrees while the flaps are retracting until reaching a speed greater than VREF on the speed tape.
- At 900 m (3,000 ft) above airport level, accelerate to en-route climb speed in the clean configuration.
This procedure is easier than the description makes it seem. Simply use normal takeoff procedures, leave the flaps set, select manual speeds before 800' and auto speeds at 3,000' for a normal clean up. So what happens when you do this?
- The performance computer will set V1 as your target speed prior to takeoff.
- On rotation, if you still have both engines, the performance computer sets V2+10 and keeps that.
- The performance computer normally raises the target speed to 200 if you raise the flaps and then 250 once leaving the airport traffic area. You stop the first by keeping the flaps set and the second by selecting MANUAL speeds at 800 feet.
- Once you reach 3,000' AGL and select AUTO speeds, the performance computer will select 220 knots, which is VFE for 20° flaps.
- Flap retract speed is VREF+20, which you will have almost immediately. When you retract the flaps the performance computer will select 250 knots.
- At this point the aircraft and performance computer are in normal configurations.
Note: the display controller will indicate VREF for 20° flaps when the flap handle is set to 20° reassuring you that you can retract the flaps safely. The second the flap handle goes to 0° the VREF increases for a clean configuration and you will appear to be below VREF. Of course you are not.
See the video: ELLX Takeoff Runway 06 for demo of these procedures at Luxembourg.
Noise Abatement Departure Procedure 2 (NADP 2) – Distant Noise Reduction
[GAC-OMS-02, pg. 5.]
- After takeoff from the departure airport, the initial climb speed shall not be less than V2+10 kt. As noted earlier the automatic speed targets will produce the speed target of V2+10 kt as a factor of normal rotation rates at any weight.
- On reaching an altitude equivalent to at least 240 m (800 ft) above aerodrome level, decrease aircraft body angle/angle of pitch while maintaining a positive rate of climb, retract flaps and accelerate towards VZF (200 kt). Doing so will result in the automatic speed target changing to 200 kt. Select MANual speed then select either VNAV or FLCH on the Guidance Panel. The autothrottle will reduce power to the climb rating. Limit bank angle to 15 degrees while the flaps are retracting until reaching a speed greater than VREF on the speed tape.
- Maintain a positive rate of climb and accelerate to and maintain a climb speed of 200 kt until 900 m (3,000 ft) above aerodrome level.
- On reaching 900 m (3,000 ft) above aerodrome level, deselect MANual under the Speed window on the Guidance Panel and transition to normal en-route climb speed.
14 CFR 36, Title 14: Noise Standards: Aircraft Type and Airworthiness Certification, Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
Gulfstream JAA Operating Manual Supplement for GIV, GIV-SP, G400, G300, G450, GV, G500, and G550 Airplanes, Supplement Number GAC-OMS-02: Noise Abatement Departure Procedures for JAA/EASA Operators, Basic Issue, June 25, 2008
Gulfstream Noise Information Manual, Revision 12, Sept 1, 2011
ICAO Annex 16 - Environmental Protection - Vol I - Aircraft Noise, International Standards and Recommended Practices, Annex 16 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, Vol I, July 2008
ICAO Doc 8168 - Aircraft Operations - Vol I - Flight Procedures, Procedures for Air Navigation Services, International Civil Aviation Organization, 2006