Eddie Sez:

Rules of Thumb? You want rules of thumb. We got a few . . .

Aim versus Touchdown Points

Source: Deck Angle.

The main gear will touchdown behind the pilot’s aim point a distance seven times the distance between the pilot and the main gear (plus flare distance) when the airplane is flown on a 3 degree glide path.

Angle of Attack

Source: Angle of Attack.

Commit the Angle of Attack for L/DMAX (usually 0.3) to memory, it is your best glide and endurance speed and can save your life.

Approach VVI

Source: Approach VVI.

A 3 degree glide path descent rate in feet/minute is equal to one-half the ground speed in nm/hour.

Circling Approach Offset

Source: Circling Approach.

To provide circling offset when approaching a runway at 90°, overfly the runway and time for 15 seconds (Category D) / 20 seconds (Category C) before turning downwind. To provide offset when approaching from the opposite runway, turn 30° away from heading, time for 60 seconds (Category D) / 70 seconds (Category C), and then turn downwind.

Course Intercepts

Source: Course Intercepts.

To intercept a course inbound: Charlie Brown plus 30, the head always falls.

To intercept a course outbound: Tom Collins plus 45, the tail always rises.


Source: Crosswinds.

A thirty degree crosswind is equal to one-half the full wind factor.

A sixty degree crosswind is equal to ninety percent of the full wind factor.

A forty-five degree crosswind is equal to three-fourths the full wind factor.

Descent Gradient

Source: 60 to 1.

Flight levels divided by nautical miles equals gradient.

Nautical miles per minute times descent angle times 100 gives vertical velocity in feet per minute.

ETE Adjustments for Block Times

Block Times.

Timing ETE Adjustment for TAS decay with descent:

  • add 6 minutes when 70 nautical miles out
  • add 5 minutes when 60 nautical miles out
  • add 4 minutes when 50 nautical miles out
  • add 3 minutes when 40 nautical miles out
  • add 2 minutes when 30 nautical miles out
  • add 1 minute when 20 nautical miles out.

Timing: It takes 20 seconds to taxi 1/10 of a nautical mile at 18 knots.

Timing: A standard rate 360 degree turn loses 2 minutes, a half-standard rate 360 degree turn loses 4 minutes.

Timing: A 60 degree turn off course for time X followed by a 60 degree turn back to course for time X and a 60 degree turn back on course will add time X to the en route ETE.


Source: Fix-to-Fix.

To fly a fix-to-fix: You are the tail, target is the radial, higher DME is the edge of the card, lower DME is inside; draw a line, transpose the line.

Fuel Burn

Source: G450 Performance-En Route.

Cruise fuel flows in the G450 are generally 4,500 / 4,000 / 3,500 PPH during hours one, two, and three. From that point on you can budget 3,000 PPH.

Glide Path

Source: 60 to 1.

Nautical miles per hour times ten divided by two gives a good three degree glide path VVI.


Source: Air Properties.

Standard Temperature is 15°C minus 2°C per thousand feet above sea level, until 36,000’ after which it becomes constant at -56°C.

Maneuvering Speed

Source: Maneuvering Speed.

When recovering from an unusual attitude, wind shear, or anytime maximum maneuverability is needed, the closer the airplane is to VA maneuvering speed, the better.


Source: Radar Tilt.

At 40,000', setting 0° tilt on a 24-inch radar grazes the ground at 200 nm.

At 30,000', setting 0° tilt on a 24-inch radar grazes the ground at 150 nm.


Source: Maximum Range.

While the angle of attack at which L/DMAX occurs remains constant with weight, the airspeed at which this occurs decreases as the aircraft becomes lighter.

The aircraft’s maximum range will occur at an airspeed higher than at which L/DMAX occurs.

To obtain maximum range, the thrust of the aircraft must be reduced as the airspeed for maximum range decreases with decreasing aircraft weight.

Maximum range Mach does not change for conditions of headwinds or tailwinds on most turbofan aircraft.


Source: Smoothness.

Apply small pressures to the nose wheel tiller to avoid taxi jerkiness: apply a small pressure and wait to see the response before adjusting pressure.

High deck angles are permissible on takeoff and initial climb out, so long as all negative G forces are avoided when reducing pitch.

On landing apply wheel brakes with an initial pressure and wait for a reaction; cold-soaked brakes rapidly increase effectiveness as temperature rises during initial application.

Stick Shaker (High Altitude) Speed

Source: G450 Flight Envelope.

During a maximum weight climb to altitude you will get the stick shaker at a Mach twenty higher than your altitude in thousands. At 20,000 feet it occurs at Mach .40, at 30,000 feet at Mach 0.50, and at 40,000 feet at Mach 0.60.

Teardrop Angle

Source: Holding Pattern Teardrop Angle.

A holding pattern teardrop angle of 120 times the turn radius divided by leg length will provide an on course roll out, no wind.

Top of Descent

Source: Top of Descent.

Start descent at three times your altitude to lose in thousands of feet to achieve a three degree gradient.

Start descent at four times your altitude to lose in thousands of feet to achieve a 2.5 degree gradient.

Source: G450 Performance-Descent.

When descending from above 35,000', start down at four times your altitude to lose and select a 2.5° flight path angle on the guidance panel. You can steepen the angle to 3.0° once below 35,000'. When descending from below 35,000', start down at three times your altitude to lose and select a 3.0° flight path angle.

Turn Radius

Source: Holding Pattern Teardrop Angle.

Rule — At 25 degrees of bank, turn radius is equal to nautical miles per minute squared, divided by ten.

Source: Turn Performance.

A standard rate turn radius is equal to nm/min divided by 3.

Visual Descent Point

Source: VDP.

A Visual Descent Point is found by subtracting the touchdown zone from the Minimum Descent Altitude and dividing the result by 300.

Visual Pattern Geometry

Final Turn.

Visual pattern: fly a downwind displaced by 2 nm, turn base at 45°, descend 900 fpm, roll out at 600’, 2 nm from touchdown zone.