Visual Approach Guidance
Gulfstream G450 Flight Procedures
Let's say you are about to fly a visual approach to an airport with no instrument guidance whatsoever but would still like something to help with lateral alignment and vertical glide path guidance. Well you are in luck, we've had that ability since the GIV and if you follow the same techniques your G450 Heads Up Display will give you even more help.
Photo: Christmas Islands Airport, from Eddie's notes.
Photo: DU map display on final flight segment, from Eddie's aircraft.
For our example, all we have is the destination airport and runway available in the FMS database.
Photo: MCDU Visual Approach, Flight Plan "Before," from Eddie's aircraft.
With no other entries, the MCDU will contain a single line for the runway, the runway elevation in small numbers, and the course from the previous point.
Photo: MCDU, Visual Approach, 50' height in scratch pad, from Eddie's aircraft.
Take note of the runway elevation, in this case it is 10 feet. Add 50 to that and enter it in the scratch pad with a leading slash, in this case: /60.
Photo: MCDU, Visual Approach, Threshold Crossing Height Entered, from Eddie's aircraft.
Press the right line select key adjacent the runway line to enter the new threshold crossing height, in this case LSK 2R.
Photo: MCDU, Visual Approach, Runway Data Line in Scratch pad, from Eddie's aircraft.
Press the left LSK next to the runway to insert the runway identifier and the runway's reciprocal heading into the scratch pad, in this case: "PLCH.RW08/260/". Notice the runway line still does not contain any vertical guidance.
Photo: MCDU, Enter 1,000' Point, from Eddie's aircraft.
Add to the scratch pad your desired distance, a slash, and the correct altitude at that point. A three degree glide path comes to 318' per nautical mile.
More about this: 60 to 1.
For years we've preached 300 feet per nautical mile since we were "eye-balling" the glide path. But with all the electrons available to us now that would mean we were flying a 2.85° glide path and some locations prohibit that. But if you are flying to a runway with a 875' elevation do you want to do the math? (3 x 318 + 875 = 1829')
I tend to use 3 nautical miles and 1,000', because it is easy to remember, the math is simple, and keeps us above the 3° glide path. In the photo we've added "3/1060".
Photo: MCDU, Insert New Waypoint, from Eddie's aircraft.
Press the left LSK one line above the runway to insert the 1,000' point just prior to the runway. You now have a 3° glide path starting at your chosen distance leading you down to the 50' point above the runway threshold. The course is aligned with the runway. Notice the MCDU indicates a 3.1° glide path because the 1,000' height is slightly higher than the mathematically pure equation of 318' per nautical mile.
Photo: Resulting Map Display, from Eddie's aircraft.
Set up this way, the FMS will give you a course line to intercept that aligns you with the runway and a glide path you can use with VNAV. The HUD will also provide a CDI with course center line. Setting up the reference flight path angle on the HUD, coupled with the VNAV, you should be able to fly a stable approach. Of course this will probably be at RNP 1.0 so it isn't good enough to shoot a low vis approach, but it is still pretty good.
For more techniques about setting up visual approach guidance, see: Landing.