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G500 Limitations

Gulfstream GVII-G500

There are a lot of published limitations but most of them apply more to getting the airplane certified, authorized, or maintained. Quite a few apply to us pilots. The thing is you have to know which are important to you and which are not. I've made my choice, you can see them (and study them if you like) here: G500 Flashcards.


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Photo: "The limit" sketch

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Here are the limits as given in §1 of the AFM, in the section number order.

02 Runway, Slope and Wind Conditions

02 High Elevation Airport Operations

03 Types of Airplane Operations Permitted

03 Operating Temperature Envelope

03 Maximum Operating Altitudes

03 Airspeed Limitations

03 Flight Load Acceleration

03 Weight

03 Center of Gravity

03 Maximum Fuel Imbalance

21 Cabin Pressure Control

22 Autothrottle

22 Autopilot

23 VHF and HF Communications

24 Ram Air Turbine

24 Transformer Rectifier Units

27 Control Laws

28 Fuel

29 Hydraulic

30 Icing

Tire Pressure

Weather Radar

HUD

Note: These are the limits we as pilots care about. The G500 AFM also includes information about hydraulic fluids (§01-12-10), APU fuel grades and temperatures (§01-12-20), engine fuel grades (§01-12-30), engine fuel additives (§01-12-40), engine and apu oil grades (§01-12-50),

Runway, Slope and Wind Conditions

A runway is wet when more than 1/4 of it is damp or has up to 1/8" water, but it is contaminated when there is more than 1/8". Maximum slope is 2% up or down. Max tailwind is 10 knots unless landing with 0° or 10° flaps, in which case it is zero. Max crosswind is 30 knots unless not in normal flight control law mode, in which case is it 10 knots.

[G500 AFM, §01-02-10]

Runway Conditions

  1. A runway is wet when more than 25 percent of the runway surface area (within the reported length and the width being used) is covered by any visible dampness or water that is ⅛ inch (3 mm) or less in depth. A damp runway that meets this definition is considered wet, regardless of whether or not the surface appears reflective.
  2. A runway is considered contaminated when more than 25 percent of the runway surface area (within the reported length and the width being used) is covered by any frost, ice, snow, slush, or greater than 3mm of standing water.

Maximum Slopes Approved for Takeoff and Landing Operations

  1. +2% (uphill)
  2. -2% (downhill)

Wind Conditions

  1. Maximum tailwind component approved for takeoff and landing: 10 knots
  2. When operating in a flight control law mode other than normal (i.e., alternate, direct or backup), maximum crosswind component for landing: 10 knots
  3. Maximum tailwind component for landing with flaps 10° or less is zero knots.

Takeoff Croswwind Limits: Normal Takeoff - 30 knots.

High Elevation Airport Operations

[G500 AFM, §01-02-20]

Maximum approved airport pressure altitude for takeoff or landing: 15,000 feet.

Types of Airplane Operations Permitted

[G500 AFM, §01-03-10]

  1. Transport category - Land.
  2. Day and Night, Visual and Instrument Flight Rules.
  3. Category 1 approach operations.
  4. Flight into known icing.
  5. /I and /G special FMS procedures operations.
  6. Extended over water flight.
  7. Polar navigation.
  8. ADS-B Out, Version 2 (DO-260B)
  9. The installed ADS-B Out system complies with 14 CFR 91.225 and 91.227, AC 20-165B, and EASA Approved Means of Compliance (AMC) 20-24.

    1. The extended squitter transmission system does not take into account the system’s uncompensated latency into its transmitted horizontal quality indicator value
    2. The extended squitter transmission system does not base the transmitted horizontal quality indicator solely on the integrity information from the horizontal position source
    3. ADS-B operations require capability to communicate via VHF radio or CPDLC, and an operable SBAS-enabled GPS receiver.

  10. ADS-B In.
  11. Data Link Recording
  12. Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) Airspace Operations Limitations and exceptions defined in 01-34-90, RVSM.
  13. Data Link Communication (see Table 1. Data Link Communication)
    1. The FAA has approved the aircraft data link system to the criteria contained in AC 20-140C for the following data link capabilities. This design approval does not constitute operational authorization.
    2. CPDLC, in conjunction with ADS-C, enables the use of FANS 1/A+ over oceanic airspace. FANS 1/A+ uses the Airport Facilities Notification (AFN) protocol over existing ACARS network via VHF and SATCOM. CPDLC provides route uplink push-to-load functionality (e.g., UM79, UM80, UM83 uplink messages) and meets the requirements of AC 90-117.
  14. Navigation Operational Capabilities (see Table 2. Navigation Operational Capabilities)
    1. Airplane complies with RNP RNAV as defined in RTCA / DO-236( ) and DO-283( ), with the limitations and exceptions defined in 01-34-30, Flight Management System.
    2. The navigation equipment as installed has been found to comply with the requirements established for the following navigation specifications:
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    Photo: Data Link Communication Limitations, G500 AFM, §01-03-00, Table 1

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    Photo: Navigation Operational Capabilities, G500 AFM, §01-03-00, Table 2, p. 2

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    Photo: Navigation Operational Capabilities, G500 AFM, §01-03-00, Table 2, p. 3

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    Photo: Navigation Operational Capabilities, G500 AFM, §01-03-00, Table 2, p. 4

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    Photo: Navigation Operational Capabilities, G500 AFM, §01-03-00, Table 2, p. 5

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    Photo: Navigation Operational Capabilities, G500 AFM, §01-03-00, Table 2, p. 6

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    Photo: Navigation Operational Capabilities, G500 AFM, §01-03-00, Table 2, p. 7

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    Photo: Navigation Operational Capabilities, G500 AFM, §01-03-00, Table 2, p. 8

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    Photo: Navigation Operational Capabilities, G500 AFM, §01-03-00, Table 2, p. 9

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    Photo: Navigation Operational Capabilities, G500 AFM, §01-03-00, Table 2, p. 10

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    Photo: Navigation Operational Capabilities, G500 AFM, §01-03-00, Table 2, p. 11

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Operating Temperature Envelope

[G500 AFM, §01-03-10]

  1. Engine start below an ambient temperature of -20°C is prohibited.
  2. Operating Temperature Envelope is displayed in Figure 1. GVII Temperature Operating Envelope.
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Photo: GVII Temperature operating envelope, G500 AFM, §01-03-00, Figure 1

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Maximum Operating Altitudes

[G500 AFM, §01-03-30]

  1. Maximum Operating Altitude — 51,000 feet
  2. Maximum Operating Altitude with a Single Air Conditioning Pack Operating — 48,000 feet
  3. Maximum Operating Altitude with Interior Baggage Compartment Door Open — 40,000 feet
  4. Maximum Operating Altitude with Jammed Rudder, Rudder Failure, or Yaw Damper Failure — 35,000 feet
  5. Maximum Operating Altitude For Extension/Flight with Flaps 10° or 20° — 25,000 feet
  6. Maximum Operating Altitude for For Extension/Flight Landing Gear Extended — 20,000 feet
  7. Maximum Operating Altitude For Extension/Flight with Flaps 39° — 20,000 feet

Airspeed Limitations

[G500 AFM, §01-03-30]

  1. Minimum Control Speed Air (VMCA)
    1. Flaps 10° – 120 KCAS
    2. Flaps 20° – 112 KCAS
    3. VMCL – 109 KCAS
  2. Minimum Control Speed Ground (VMCG)
    1. 111 KCAS
  3. Maneuvering Speed (VA)
    1. Full application of pitch, roll or yaw controls should be confined to speeds below 206 KCAS.
    2. NOTE: Rapid and large alternating control inputs, especially in combination with large changes in pitch, roll, or yaw, and full control inputs in more than one axis at the same time, should be avoided as they may result in structural failures at any speed, including below the maneuvering speed.

  4. Flaps Extended Speed (VFE)
    1. 10° – 250 KCAS
    2. 20° – 220 KCAS
    3. 39° – 180 KCAS
  5. Maximum Landing Gear Extended Speed (VLE)
    1. Maximum Landing Gear Extended Speed (VLE) is the maximum speed at which the airplane can be safely flown with the landing gear extended.
    2. Do not exceed 250 KCAS with landing gear extended.
  6. Maximum Landing Gear Operation Speeds (VLO)
    1. Maximum Landing Gear Operating Speed (VLO) is the maximum speed at which it is safe to extend or retract the landing gear.
    2. Do not extend or retract the landing gear above 225 KCAS.
  7. Emergency Landing Gear Extension
    1. Emergency Landing Gear Extension utilizes alternate means to extend to the landing gear. Do not lower landing gear using the alternate system above 175 KCAS.
    2. With the landing gear extended utilizing the alternate system, do not exceed 225 KCAS.
  8. Maximum Operating Limit Speed (VMO / MMO)
    1. Maximum operating limit speed shall not be deliberately exceeded in any regime of flight (climb, cruise or descent). See Figure 2. Altitude/Mach Flight Envelope.
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    Photo: GVII Altitude/Mach Flight Envelope, G500 AFM, §01-03-00, Figure 2

    Click photo for a larger image

  9. Maximum Airspeed with Yaw Damper Failure
    1. 285 KCAS / 0.90M
  10. Turbulence Penetration Speed
    1. At or above 10,000 feet: 270 KCAS / 0.85M, whichever is less.
    2. Less than 10,000 feet: 240 KCAS.
  11. Maximum Tire Groundspeed:
    1. 195 knots
  12. Degraded Flight Control Law Mode
    1. When operating in a flight control law mode other than normal (i.e., alternate, direct or backup), do not exceed 285 KCAS / 0.90M maximum.
  13. Flight Control Surface Failure or Jammed Condition
    1. If any primary flight control surface or spoiler panel is failed, caused by either a component malfunction(s) or a hydraulic system failure, do not exceed 285 KCAS / 0.90M maximum.
  14. The Guidance Panel SPEED selector must be set to IAS mode (not Mach) with the flaps or landing gear extended.

Flight Load Acceleration

[G500 AFM, §01-03-50]

  1. Flaps Up: -1 – 2.5 G
  2. Flaps 10° and Flaps 20°: 0 – 2.0 G
  3. Flaps 39°:
    1. Below Maximum Landing Weight: 0 – 2.0 G
    2. Above Maximum Landing Weight: 0 – 1.5 G

Weight

[G500 AFM, §01-03-56]

  • Maximum Zero Fuel Weight: 52,100 lb
  • Maximum Ramp Weight: 80,000 lb
  • Maximum Takeoff Weight: 79,600 lb
  • Maximum Landing Weight: 64,350 lb
  • Minimum Flight Weight: 48.300 lb
  • Maximum approved weight in baggage compartment: 2,000 lb

Center of Gravity

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Photo: Zero Fuel Weight CG Envelope, G500 AFM, §01-03-00, Figure 3

Click photo for a larger image

Maximum Fuel Imbalance

[G500 AFM, §01-03-80]

  1. The Maximum Fuel Imbalance Limits
    1. Takeoff: 1,000 lb (453 kg)
    2. In Flight: 2,000 lb (907 kg)

Cabin Pressure Control

[G500 AFM, §01-21-10]

    1. Landing Field Elevation (LFE)
      1. Limited to less than 10,000 MSL with the CPCS in Semi Mode except during an emergency.
    2. Maximum Cabin Differential Pressures
      1. In Flight: 10.69 PSI
      2. Taxi, Takeoff, Landing: 0.3 PSI
    3. ECS Duct Temperatures
      1. Duct temperatures above 200°F (93°C) are prohibited during manual zone control.
    4. ECS Pack Operation
      1. During ground operations with SAT greater than 98°F (37°C), a minimum of one ECS pack must be operating with APU or Engines operating.
    5. Single Pack Operation
      1. Must comply with 03-01-10, Pack Failure - Single.

Autothrottle

[G500 AFM, §01-22-10]

  1. Use of the Autothrottle is prohibited during:
    1. Single engine approaches.
    2. Approach and landing with flaps 10° or flaps 0°.

Autopilot

[G500 AFM, §01-22-20]

  1. Single Engine autopilot coupled go-around is prohibited.
  2. Minimum Autopilot Engage Height
    1. 200 feet AGL
  3. Minimum Autopilot Disengage Height from an ILS or LPV Approach
    1. Flaps 39: 90 feet AGL
    2. Flaps 0/10/20: 130 feet AGL
  4. Minimum Autopilot Disengage Height AGL for All Other Operations
    1. 200 feet AGL
  5. Maximum Demonstrated Altitude Loss for Coupled Go-Around
    1. 50 feet

    NOTE: The takeoff vertical mode (TO) only provides flap overspeed speed protection when autopilot is engaged.

VHF and HF Communications

[G500 AFM, §01-23-10] The Honeywell VHF radios comply with the 8.33 kHz spacing requirements and all applicable standards of relevant FAA Technical Standard Orders, Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics and International Civil Aviation Organization Annex 10 specifications for Frequency Modulation Immunity.

[G500 AFM, §01-23-20] Avoid HF transmission when utilizing ADF for navigation.

Ram Air Turbine

[G500 AFM, §01-24-10]

  1. Deployment of the Ram Air Turbine (RAT) is prohibited when normal ac power is available except during emergency conditions and as directed by abnormal or emergency procedure checklists.
  2. Minimum airspeed for effective RAT operation is 200 KCAS.

Transformer Rectifier Units

[G500 AFM, §01-24-30]

  1. Limit Transformer Rectifier Units (TRU) loads during ground operations as shown:
    1. Left Main, Left Essential, Right Main, Right Essential: 80%
    2. Auxiliary: 40%

Control Laws

[G500 AFM, §01-27-10]

  1. Continued flight at or below stick shaker activation speed is prohibited.
  2. NOTE: The AOA limiting / stall protection system is only available in the normal flight control mode. Stick shaker/stall warning is provided in Alternate mode at 0.85 AOA.

  3. Speed brake extension with flaps 39 or with landing gear extended is prohibited.

[G500 AFM, §01-27-20]

  1. Flight into known icing conditions is prohibited when operating in a flight control law mode other than normal (Alternate, Direct or Backup). If the flight control law mode degrades from normal while in icing conditions, exit icing conditions as soon as possible.
  2. NOTE: The AOA limiting / stall protection system is only available in the normal flight control mode. Stick shaker/stall warning is provided in Alternate mode at 0.85 AOA .

  3. Intentional degradation from normal mode or disabling of any flight control system is prohibited.

Fuel

[G500 AFM, §01-28-10] Usable Fuel Capacities

  • When gravity fueling, the total usable fuel capacity for this airplane is approximately 22,500 lb (10,206 KG).
  • If either fuel tank quantity exceeds 15,125 lb (6,861 KG), the fuel quantity digital readout on the engine instruments and synoptics displayed on the DUs will have white dashes on the affected side(s) and the total fuel quantities.
  • When pressure refueling, the usable fuel capacities for this airplane are:
    • Right Tank: 15,125 LB / 2257 GAL
    • Left Tank: 15,125 LB / 2257 GAL
    • Total: 30.250 LB / 4515 GAL

[G500 AFM, §01-28-20] Fuel Pumps

  • Operable fuel pumps must be ON for all phases of flight unless fuel balancing is in progress.

[G500 AFM, §01-28-50] Fuel Tank Temperature

  • Maximum: The maximum allowable fuel temp supplied to the engine is 55°C (131°F) up to 40,000 feet decreasing linearly to 34°C (93°F) at 51,000 feet.
  • Minimum
    • -37°C (-35°F) with greater than 5000 lbs (2268 KG) total fuel.
    • -30°C (-22°F) with less than 5000 lbs (2268 KG) total fuel.
  • When fuel tank temperature is less than or equal to -30°C in flight with less than 5000 lbs (2268 kg.) of total fuel remaining, the aircraft shall be descended to an altitude where SAT is greater than or equal to -60°C. Maintain a minimum speed of 0.80M.

Hydraulic

[G500 AFM, §01-29-10] Hydraulic Servicing

  • Maximum Reservoir Quantities (Pressurized) as Indicated on the Hydraulics Synoptic Page
    • Left Hydraulic System: 4.6 gallons
    • Right Hydraulic System: 2.8 gallons
    • Refer to the placard in the tail compartment
  • Left and Right Hydraulic System Accumulator Pre-charge: 1200 PSI at 70°F / 21°C, ±25

[G500 AFM, §01-29-20] Flight Time Limitation Hydraulic Failure

  • Land within 4 hours of a hydraulic system failure if the failure occurred within 2 hours of takeoff.
  • NOTE: If a hydraulic system failure occurs after 2 hours after takeoff, the hydraulic fluid temperature has stabilized and there are no flight time restrictions.

    I am told that this is because the hydraulic fluid gets hot during takeoff and takes four hours to cool. If it has less than that and is just sitting stagnant in the lines, it is apt to rupture a seam or fitting and leak.

Icing

Wing Anti-Ice

[G500 AFM, §01-30-10, and PAS, p. 9-34

  • If required for takeoff, WAI must be selected on at least 3 minutes prior to setting takeoff power and normal system operation must be verified prior to takeoff (wing temperature stabilized at 130°F +/- 10°F.)

  • AI ON in-flight with TAT < -7°C

    • Results in increased engine idle, approximately 47% N1.

    • Throughout descent and arrival, anticipate the need for speed brakes and increased airspeed to achieve desired profile.

    • Normal engine idle restored with TAT > -5°C or Landing gear down.

  • WAI ON and Flaps Up: 200 KCAS min until ready to configure for landing.

  • WAI operations with single bleed air system operating: WAI Auto mode prohibited, maximum altitude 32,000’, maximum airspeed → 0.85M, WAI activation and wing temp > 100°F required prior to entry into icing conditions.

  • Use of flaps in icing conditions restricted to takeoff, approach and landing only. Prior to flap extension: WAI ON / confirmed operating in norm temp range. Note: The use of speed brakes is approved in icing conditions and will assist energy management during descents, especially during ambient conditions resulting in elevated engine idle. If flaps extended during takeoff, approach or landing > 10 mins, do not retract flaps < 10° until flap leading edge verified clear of ice by 1 by visual inspection of flaps on ground or visual inspection of winglet leading edges in flight. If winglets are visually clear of ice, it can be expected that flap leading edge is also clear.

Cowl Anti-Ice

  • Required for taxi and takeoff if SAT ≤ 10°C (50°F) and any of following: visible moisture, precipitation, or a wet runway.

  • Operation prohibited when cowl anti-ice valve locked open or TAT > 15°C (59°F). Note: CAI will be auto inhibited on ground when TAT > 15°C with engine operating > 72% N1.

Tire Pressure

[AFM, §01-32-10]

  1. Recommended tire pressure for all takeoff gross weights is 182 PSI for nosewheel tires and 223 PSI for main wheel tires, when tires have been stationary for at least 2 hours.

Weather Radar

[AFM, §01-34-20]

  1. Weather Radar operation is prohibited during refueling or when within 50 feet (15.3 meters) of other refueling operations.

  2. Weather Radar Operation is prohibited within 11 feet (3.4 meters) of ground personnel.

HUD

[AFM, §01-34-70]

  1. Category I HUD operations are approved.

  2. The HUD does not provide a NDB approach capability. NDB approaches can be set up and flown through the FMS, using the HUD for guidance.

  3. The use of Caged FPV is prohibited above 1500 ft AAL.

  4. I am told this is because the TCAS RA display is unable to provide a proper "fly into" display if the HUD FPV is caged.

References

Gulfstream GVII-G500 Airplane Flight Manual, Document Number GAC-AC-GVII-G500-OPS-0001, Jul 20, 2018

Revision: 20170915
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