Engine Failure Above V1

Gulfstream GVII

Eddie sez:

You are generally better off getting the airplane airborne and coming around to land with full flaps, the engines near idle, and with most of the runway in front of you than trying to abort at high speed, at least one of the engines at takeoff thrust, and much of the runway behind you. But not always.

In the world of heavy jets, the idea that it is better to go than stop is almost an absolute. With smaller aircraft where you might have enough runway to takeoff and land again, perhaps not so much. But the G500 falls between these two extremes. My take: you are better off going than stopping unless everything is coming unglued. (Say the weather is terrrible all over, you have a long runway, and you've lost an engine and all of your cockpit displays.) But generally speaking, I am go oriented.

If the airplane detects an engine fire during takeoff close to or just after V1, it will withhold that information from you until 400 feet or 30 seconds after you become airborne. Why? See: CAS Philosophy / Filtering. You might be able to hear a subtle "click," that is the fire handle solenoid unlocking.

There is another issue to consider and that is when do you call V1? As the PF your eyes will be on the HUD and you will have the speed tape to watch V1 approach. Your PM, on the other hand, will be dividing his or her attention inside and outside. A lot of pilots are of the mindset that they must call "Vee One" at precisely V1 and that is too late, especially in an airplane that accelerates as fast as this one.

If this comes as a surprise to you, see: V1.

Keep in mind that a red Eng Out (U) CAS message tells you a relight is possible, while a red Eng Fail (U) message tells you a relight should not be attempted.

Everything here is from the references shown below, with a few comments in an alternate color.

Last revision:

20191019

AFM Procedure

[AFM, §04-06-20]

System Impacts

  • Aircraft Operating Envelope: Maximum speed reduced to 285 KCAS / 0.9M maximum with Spoiler Panel Fail (U) (caution) CAS message displayed.

  • Autobrakes: Disarmed.

  • Spoilers: Loss of one spoiler pair.

Corrective Action

  1. Takeoff . . . Continue

  2. Throttles . . . MTO

  3. At VR speed:

  4. WARNING

    DO NOT EXCEED 10 DEGREES OF PITCH ATTITUDE PRIOR TO LIFT-OFF. DO NOT ROTATE TO THE PITCH TARGET IN LESS THAN 3 SECONDS.

    NOTE

    The Flight Director Takeoff Mode is designed to provide flight path guidance consistent with the established takeoff procedure.

    If engine failure should occur after passing V2 on takeoff, it is recommended that the speed at the time of engine failure (up to V2 +10 KCAS) be maintained.

    1. Airplane . . . Rotate smoothly to 10 degree pitch target in 3-4 seconds

    2. Airspeed . . . After confirmed airborne, capture and maintain V2 to V2 + 10 KCAS

  5. After a positive climb rate is established:

    1. LANDING GEAR . . . UP

  6. When 1500 feet above airport elevation and clear of obstacles:

    1. Airspeed . . . Accelerate to VSE

    2. Throttle (Operating Engine) . . . MCT

  7. After reaching V2 +20:

    1. FLAPS . . . UP

    2. Affected Engine . . . Confirm

    3. Throtttle (Affected Engine) . . . IDLE

    4. Try to remember if the CAS message says Eng Out (U) or Eng Fail (U) before selecting the fuel control to off, because the CAS message will go away. This will be important if you want to consider relighting the engine.

    5. FUEL CONTROL (Affected Engine) . . . OFF

    6. ENG BLEED AIR (Affected Engine) . . . OFF

    7. TCAS . . . TA only

    8. Fuel Balance . . . Monitor and Maintain

    9. Refer to 02-08-60, Fuel Balancing in Flight.

    10. Airspeed . . . 200 KCAS minimum

  8. If Wing Anti-Ice is required:

    1. Isolation Valve . . . Verify Closed (Out)

    2. CAUTION

      WAI MUST BE ACTIVATED AND REACH AN OPERATING TEMPERATURE GREATER THAN 100°F PRIOR TO ENTRY INTO ICING CONDITIONS.

    3. WAI . . . ON

  9. Airplane . . . Land as soon as possible

  10. NOTE

    Do not attempt an airstart if an Eng Fail (warning) CAS message was displayed prior to the Fuel Control being shut off.

  11. If an airstart is to be attempted:

    1. Refer to 04-08-20, Airstart.

  12. If landing using a single engine:

  13. NOTE

    The APU may be used as an alternate source of electrical power. Refer to 03-03-10, APU Inflight Operation - Alternate Electrical Power Source.

    1. Refer to 04-08-30, One Engine Inoperative Landing Procedure.

Technique

[Ground and Flight Operations, pp. 64-65

  • Continue the takeoff – throttles full forward.
  • Maintain directional control with the rudder.
  • At VR, smoothly rotate the airplane to place the flight path vector on the flight director and track it.
  • After lift-off, accelerate to capture V2 to V2 +10.
    • Auto-speed will hold V2 to V2+10, based on speed at engine failure.
    • Use the V-Speed awareness band in the HUD as desired
    • Place the FPV inside the V2 to V2+10 staple.
    • This seems like a good technique in theory, but I find it too hard to maintain a sense of the airplane's lateral attitude and heading while focussing on that staple. I think it easier to ask for VLCH once you are inside the speed range and look at the PFD for lateral cues. More about that below.

  • When a positive rate of climb is established, retract the landing gear.
  • Climb at V2 to V2+10 to 1,500 feet above airport elevation and clear of obstacles.
  • Accelerate to a minimum of VSE.
    • Auto-speeds will go to 200 KCAS, automatically at 1500 feet AGL, or the highest obstacle, or the SID climb height.
    • Auto-speeds will go to 220 KCAS (flap limit speed) with 20° flaps at 2500 feet AGL.
  • After reaching V2+20 knots, select the flaps to UP, continue acceleration to VSE.
  • Set the OPERATING engine throttle to Maximum Continuous Thrust (MCT).
  • Set the FAILED engine throttle to idle.
    • The flight crew shall confirm the correct (failed) engine FUEL CONTROL prior to placing the switch in the OFF position.
  • Select the FAILED engine FUEL CONTROL switch to OFF. If an engine is shut down due to extreme vibration, consideration should be given to shutting off fluids to/from the FAILED engine by pulling the associated FIRE handle.
  • Select the failed ENG BLEED AIR switch to OFF. In some cases, this will prevent the loss of ECS air and/or prevent smoke induction into the bleed air manifold.
  • Select the ISOLATION valve to OPEN. The second ECS pack will restart to assist in pressurizing the aircraft.
  • If the left engine has failed, select the PTU ARMED/ON (if required) to ensure PTU operation. If the PTU was previously armed, it will have been automatically activated when L SYS pressure decreased below 1500 psi.
  • If the left engine has failed, select the AUX pump to ARM. This will provide additional redundancy to the rudder, flaps, wheel brakes and nosewheel steering.
  • Place TCAS in to TA only mode.
  • Monitor and maintain fuel load balance. See Section 01-03-80, Maximum Fuel Imbalance.
  • Airspeed – 285 KCAS/0.9M maximum.
  • If WAI is required:
    • Descend below 32,000 feet.
    • Airspeed 0.85M maximum.
    • ECS Pack (affected engine) – OFF.
    • Isolation Valve – Closed (Auto/Sw-Out).
    • WAI – ON.
  • Do not attempt airstart if an Eng Fail (warning) CAS message was displayed prior to the Fuel Control being shut off.
  • If desired, the APU may be used as an alternate source of electrical power. See Section 03-03-10, APU Inflight Operation – Alternate Electrical Power Source.
  • Return to airport for immediate landing. See Section 04-19-40, Immediate Return for Landing or proceed to takeoff alternate airport.
  • If the engine failed for no apparent reason, consideration should be given to attempting an airstart.
  • If landing single engine, refer to Section 04-08-30, One Engine Inoperative Landing Procedure.

The FlightSafety G500 Pilot Initial Guide gives an excellent treatise on how to fly the airplane following an engine failure at V1.

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Photo: Flight Path Vector (FPV) with V2 "staple," slip indicator, and irrelevant flight director cue.
Click photo for a larger image

I've been using the Flight Path Vector (FPV) in the HUD for ten years now but I've made an exception for keeping control of the aircraft during an engine failure in the simulator. I've found that it jumps around too much, having to shift your eyes up to find the slip indicator, to the left for the airspeed, to the bottom for the horizon, and then to whatever heading reference there is is just too hard. I've never been able to do it, so if I have an engine failure after V1, I keep my eyes through the HUD while adding the necessary rudder, until I've brought the nose up to obscure that view. Then, I shift my eyes down to the PFD where I have everything I need in an easier to read format.

While I've been doing that, I think the majority of G450, G550, and G650 pilots were doing the same. In fact, I think most of them were not using HUD symbology in the PFD. Now in the G500 you don't have "V-bars" in a single cue or the cross bars many of us flying Air Force aircraft grew up with. So everyone is using HUD symbology. Gulfstream has made the HUD symbology more useful during an engine failure. An airspeed "staple" appears that brackets V2 to V2+10. So all you have to do is keep the FPV's left between the two legs of that staple. I find it very easy to do that. Next, they've put a slip indicator right under the FPV to make it easier to keep the airplane in coordinated flight. I also find this very easy. But there is a problem. The horizon line in the HUD is a thin line that will drop down to the bottom of the HUD. I find it very hard to keep an eye on it. Heading? It is too hard to read. And there is one other problem.

The flight director cue in the G500 is repurposed during takeoff to give a rotation cue from well below the horizon until it gets to the correct rotation angle. And then it just stays there unless you select a vertical mode. If you are trying to keep the FPV inside the V2 to V2+10 staple, the flight director does nothing for you laterally or vertically. The FPV does a marvelous job of keeping you at the correct speed but absolutely nothing to keep you on heading. I've given this recommended technique a try and don't like it.

So here is what I do. I keep my eyes in the HUD during the takeoff roll and initial rotation. Once I have this rotation mostly done, I shift my eyes down and ask for FLCH. It should zero in on whatever speed you have at the time, but no higher than V2+10. So my call is, "Select flight level change, ensure I have no more than Vee Two Plus 10." Now I have that big beautiful PFD display where attitude and heading are easy to discern. The biggest problem for me now is having to shift my eyes up to the slip indicator. But once I've made that input, that input remains the same until I change the thrust level.

What about rudder? They say you should add all the rudder and then take out what you don't need.


See Also:

Gulfstream GVII-G500 Airplane Flight Manual, Revision 4, August 29, 2019

Gulfstream GVII-G500 Production Aircraft Systems, Revision 3, July 15, 2019