Africa - Indian Ocean (AFI)
International Operations Regional
Figure: AFI Region, from Eddie's notes.
This region is moving from a mix of navigation requirements to the system of Performance Based Navigation outlined in ICAO Document 9613. Current navigation requirements are available on Jeppesen Airway Manual Air Traffic Control pages and Chapter 4 of each region covered by ICAO Document 7030.
RNAV 10 (RNP 10)
[ICAO Doc 7030, §AFI, ¶22.214.171.124.] RNAV 10 (RNP 10) Area of applicability:
- For flights on designated controlled oceanic routes or areas within the Canarias FIR (southern sector), Dakar Oceanic, Recife and Sal Oceanic FIRs, and on designated routes over continental Africa, a lateral separation minimum of 93 km (50 NM) may be applied.
- For flights in the EUR/SAM corridor (Canarias (southern sector), Dakar Oceanic, Recife and Sal Oceanic FIRs), a longitudinal separation minimum of 93 km (50 NM) derived by RNAV may be applied between RNAV-equipped aircraft approved to RNP 10 or better, in accordance with the provisions of the PANS-ATM, 126.96.36.199.
- Longitudinal distance-based separation minima of 93 km (50 NM) between RNAV aircraft on the same track on RNP 10 routes over continental Africa shall not be used.
More about this:Required Navigation Performance-10 (RNP-10).
Not all countries are WGS-84 compliant. For two examples of many:
- [Jeppesen Airway Manual, Air Traffic Control, State Rules and Procedures, Africa, Burundi, 30 Aug 2013] WGS-84 partially compliant.
- [Jeppesen Airway Manual, Air Traffic Control, State Rules and Procedures, Africa, Congo, D.R. Of, 17 May 2013] WGS-84 not compliant.
More about this: World Geodetic System 84 (WGS-84).
[ICAO Document 7030, §AFI, ¶4.2.1] A minimum vertical separation of 300 m (1 000 ft) between RVSM-approved aircraft shall be applied between FL 290 and FL 410 inclusive in the following FIRs: Accra, Addis Ababa, Antananarivo, Asmara, Beira, Brazzaville, Canarias, Cape Town, Dakar, Dakar Oceanic, Dar es Salaam, Entebbe, Gaborone, Harare, Johannesburg, Johannesburg Oceanic, Kano, Khartoum, Kinshasa, Lilongwe, Luanda, Lusaka, Mauritius, Mogadishu, Nairobi, N'Djamena, Niamey, Roberts, Sal Oceanic, Seychelles, Tripoli and Windhoek.
[ICAO Document 7030, §AFI, ¶6.2.4]
- An RVSM of 300 m (1 000 ft) shall be applied between FL 290 and FL 410 inclusive within the FIRs specified in 4.2.1.
- The minimum separation] shall only be applied between aircraft where those aircraft and the operator have been approved by the State of Registry or the State of the Operator, as appropriate, to conduct flights in RVSM airspace.
- Aircraft that have not received RVSM State approval may be cleared to operate in airspace where RVSM may be applied in accordance with policy and procedures established by the State provided that 600 m (2 000 ft) vertical separation is applied.
More about this: Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM).
QNH and QFE
Some countries use a mix of QNH and QFE. For one example of a decreasing list:
- [Jeppesen Airway Manual, Air Traffic Control, State Rules and Procedures, Africa, Algeria, 22 Jul 2011] Arrival and departure altimeter settings are provided as follows:
- international airports: QNH and QFE values;
- domestic airports: QFE value (QNH on request).
More about this: Altimetry, Metric, QFE/QNH.
Transition Altitude / Layer / Level procedures are nonstandard in several locations. For one example of many:
- [Jeppesen Airway Manual, Air Traffic Control, State Rules and Procedures, Africa, Malawi, 6 Nov 2009] The transition level is not included in approach clearance but is given on request and when QNH falls below 1013.2hPa.
More about this: Transition Altitude / Layer / Level.
Each country departs in some ways with the ICAO standard and common US practices. Pilots should always refer to the Jeppesen Airway Manual, Air Traffic Control, State Rules and Procedures pages for each country on their itineraries for differences with ICAO Standards, Recommended Practices and Procedures. More about this: US versus ICAO.
The following are a sampling of some of the differences, there are many more. You should check the Jeppesen Airway Manual State pages for every country you takeoff, overfly, or land.
Flight Level Changes
[ICAO Document 7030, AFI, Paragraph 188.8.131.52] Changes to flight levels must be made in controlled airspace. Pilots should anticipate the need to climb and understand flight level changes may not be possible in some airspace.
Many countries have exceptions to ICAO standard lost communications procedures, as listed in their individual Jeppesen Airway Manual, Emergency, State Rules and Procedures pages.
More about this: Lost Communications.
Some countries have non-standard position reporting procedures. For one example of many:
- [Jeppesen Airway Manual, Air Traffic Control, State Rules and Procedures, Africa, Liberia, 5 Oct 2012] In addition to general position reporting procedures position reports shall be made when entering or leaving the Roberts FIR. THe last position report befoe leaving the Roberts FIR shall also be made to the ATS unit serving the airspace about to be entered.
Strategic Lateral Offset Procedure
Some countries employ Strategic Lateral Offset Procedures (SLOP) over domestic airspace. For example:
- [Jeppesen Airway Manual, Air Traffic Control, State Rules and Procedures, Africa, Madagascar, 8 Nov 2013] Madagascar has implemented in its upper airspace between FL280 and FL460 the strategic lateral offset procedures (SLOP) in its entire continental Antananarivo FIR. The pilot must report to the controller when normal navigation is resumed after a lateral deviation of 1 or 2 NM right of the axis of the nominal route. Pilots may contact other aircraft on the inerpilot frequency 123.45MHz to ocordinate offset.
More about this: Strategic Lateral Offset Procedure (SLOP).
Traffic Information Broadcast by Aircraft (TIBA)
Some countries have uncontrolled IFR airspace requiring a "listening watch" procedure on air traffic advisory service frequencies. For one example of many:
- [Jeppesen Airway Manual, Air Traffic Control, State Rules and Procedures, Africa, Lesotho, 22 Nov 2013] All aircraft flying within Lesotho territorial boundaries at or below 12500ft outside controlled airspace shall maintain a listening watch and make traffic information broadcasts on frequency 122.8MHz.
For more about this: Traffic Information Broadcast by Aircraft (TIBA).
ICAO Doc 7030 - Regional Supplementary Procedures, International Civil Aviation Organization, 2008
ICAO Doc 9613 - Performance Based Navigation (PBN) Manual, International Civil Aviation Organization, 2008
Jeppesen Airway Manual