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Middle East / Asia

International Operations Regional

Regional differences from the ICAO standard can be found in ICAO Document 7030 and your Jeppesen Airway Manual. Both of the sources, however, can be out of date. See Regional Introduction for ideas about getting up-to-date information.


 

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Figure: MID/ASIA Region, from Eddie's notes.

This region is moving from a mix of navigation requirements to the system of Performance Based Navigation outlined in ICAO Document 9613. Current navigation requirements are available on Jeppesen Airway Manual Air Traffic Control pages and Chapter 4 of each region covered by ICAO Document 7030.

RNP 4

[ICAO Doc 7030 Amendment 1, §MID/ASIA, ¶4.1.2.1.]

  • For flights on designated controlled oceanic routes or areas within the Auckland Oceanic, Brisbane, Fukuoka, Honiara, Melbourne, Nauru, New Zealand and Port Moresby FIRs, a lateral separation minimum of 55.5 km (30 NM) may be applied.
  • For flights on designated controlled oceanic routes or areas within the Auckland Oceanic, Brisbane, Fukuoka, Honiara, Melbourne, Nauru, New Zealand and Port Moresby FIRs, a longitudinal separation minimum of 55.5 km (30 NM) derived by RNAV may be applied between RNAV-equipped aircraft approved to RNP 4 or better, in accordance with the provisions of the PANS-ATM, 5.4.2.6.

This requirement was due December 2013 but has slipped.

More about this: Required Navigation Performance 4.

RNP 5

[ICAO Doc 7030 Amendment 1, §MID/ASIA, ¶4.1.1.5.3.1.] Within the Amman, Baghdad, Bahrain, Beirut, Cairo, Damascus, Jeddah, Kabul, Kuwait, Muscat, Sana'a, Tehran, Tel Aviv and Emirates FIRs, only RNAV-equipped aircraft having a navigation accuracy meeting RNP 5 may plan for operations under IFR on those ATS routes and within those level bands which have been specified as requiring RNP 5 in the relevant State AIP or NOTAM.

RNAV 10 (RNP 10)

[ICAO Doc 7030 Amendment 1, §MID/ASIA, ¶4.1.1.1.] For flights on designated controlled oceanic routes or areas within the Auckland Oceanic, Brisbane, Fukuoka, Ho Chi Minh, Hong Kong, Honiara, Kuala Limpur, Melbourne, Nauru, New Zealand and Port Moresby, Sanya and Singapore FIRs, a lateral separation minimum of 93 km (50 NM) may be applied.

[ICAO Doc 7030 Amendment 1, §MID/ASIA, ¶4.1.1.1.2] For flights on designated controlled oceanic routes or areas within the Auckland Oceanic, Brisbane, Fukuoka, Ho Chi Minh, Hong Kong, Honiara, Kuala Limpur, Melbourne, Nauru, New Zealand and Port Moresby, Sanya and Singapore FIRs, a longitudinal separation minimum of 93 km (50 NM) derived by RNAV may be applied between RNAV-equipped aircraft approved to RNP 10 or better, in accordance with the provisions of the PANS-ATM, 5.4.2.6.

More about this:Required Navigation Performance-10 (RNP-10).

Keep in mind RNP 10 is an exception to the rule of Required Navigation Performance standards, "RNAV 10" retains the "RNP 10" designation for matters of convenience.

RNP 12.6

[ICAO Doc 7030 Amendment 1, §MID/ASIA, ¶4.1.1.5.1.1.] For flights on controlled oceanic routes across the Tasman Sea within the Auckland Oceanic, Brisbane, Melbourne and New Zealand FIRs and for flights across the South China Sea within Bangkok, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh, Hong Kong, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Taipei and Singapore FIRs, the minimum lateral separation shall be 110 km (60 NM).

WGS-84 Compliance

Not all countries are WGS-84 compliant. For two examples of many:

  • [Jeppesen Airway Manual, Air Traffic Control, State Rules and Procedures, China, 11 Oct 2013] WGS-84 partially compliant.
  • [Jeppesen Airway Manual, Air Traffic Control, State Rules and Proedures, Eastern Europe, Kazakhstan, 12 Jul 2013] WGS-84 not compliant.

More about this: World Geodetic System 84 (WGS-84).

RVSM

[ICAO Document 7030, Section MID/ASIA, Paragraph 4.2.1] RVSM shall be applicable in that volume of airspace between FL 290 and FL 410 inclusive in the following FIRs: Amman, Auckland Oceanic, Bahrain, Bangkok, Beijing, Beirut, Brisbane, Cairo, Chennai, Colombo, Damascus, Delhi, Dhaka, Emirates, Fukuoka, Guangzhou, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh, Hong Kong, Honiara, Incheon, Jakarta, Jeddah, Karachi, Kathmandu, Kolkata, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Kunming, Kuwait, Lahore, Lanzhou, Male, Manila, Melbourne, Mumbai, Muscat, Nauru, New Zealand, Phnom Penh, Port Moresby, Sana'a, Sanya, Shanghai, Shenyang, Singapore, Taibei, Tehran, Ujung Pandang, Urumqi, Vientiane, Wuhan and Yangon.

[Jeppesen Airway Manual, Air Traffic Control, State Rules and Procedures, China, 11 Oct 2013] China RVSM has instituted Metric RVSM in the Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Kunming, Wuhan, Lanzhou, Urumqi FIRs between 8,900m (FL291) and 12,500m (FL411). ATC will issue the Flight Level clearance in meters. However due to the rounding differences, the metric readout of the onboard avionics will not necessarily correspond to the cleared Flight Level in meters. Use of the China RVSM FLAS Diagram to determine the corresponding flight level in feet is required to ensure a minimum of 1000' separation. The aircraft shall be flown using the flight level in FEET.

More about about this: Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM).

Altimeter Procedures

QNH and QFE

There is a broad cross section of QNH, QFE, and hybrid mixtures of the two. You will need to check the Jeppesen Airway Manual Air Traffic Control pages for each country to be sure. Here is just a sampling:

[Jeppesen Airway Manual, Air Traffic Control, State Rules and Procedures, China, 11 Oct 2013]

  • At aerodromes where transition altitudes and transition levels are established.
    • Before take-off, the aircraft altimeter subscale shall be set to QNH of the aerodrome.
    • After take-off, upon reaching the transition altitude the altimeter subscale shall be set to 1013.2hPa. When an aircraft is passing through a transition level during descent, the altimeter subscale shall be set to QNH of the aerodrome.
  • At aerodromes where transition heights and transition levels are established.
    • Before take-off, the aircraft altimeter subscale shall be set to the atmospheric pressure at the aerodrome elevation.
    • After take-off, upon reaching the transition height the altimeter subscale shall be set to 1013.2hPa. When an aircraft is passing through a transition level during descent, the altimeter subscale shall be set to the atmospheric pressure at the aerodrome elevation.
  • At aerodromes where transition altitudes or transition heights and transition levels are not established.
    • Before take-off, the aircraft altimeter subscale shall be set to the atmospheric pressure at the aerodrome elevation.
    • After take-off, when the aircraft has reached a height of 600m, the altimeter subscale shall be set to 1013.2hPa. During the process of descending in the aerodrome tower control area, the aircraft shall start altimeter setting by the instruction of air traffic controller.
  • At aerodromes of high elevation. When the aircraft altimeter subscale cannot be set to the atmospheric pressure at the aerodrome elevation, it will then be set to 1013.2hPa before take-off, with the indicated altitude interpreted as zero altitude. When the aircraft altimeter subscale cannot be set to the atmospheric pressure at the aerodrome elevation, landing is to be made with the assumed zero altitude notified by the air traffic controller before landing.

More about this: Altimetry, Metric, QFE/QNH.

Transition Levvel

Some countries use non-standard transition altitude and transition level procedures. For example:

[Jeppesen Airway Manual, Air Traffic Control, State Rules and Procedures, Far East, Singapore, 20 Dec 2013] A common transition altitude of 11,000 ft (3350 meters) has been established in the Singapore Flight Information Region. This will ensure uniformity in the transition altitudes for aerodromes within the territories of Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore, except for an area of radius 10 nautical miles centered on Mount Kinabalu where the lowest safe altitude will be 15,000 ft (4,570 meters) and the lowest usable flight level will be FL170.

More about this: Transition Altitude / Layer / Level.

Special Routings

Flexible Pacific Organized Track System (PACOTS)

[ICAO Document 7030, Section MID/ASIA, Paragraph 6.4.1]

  • To optimize the use of airspace across the Northern, Central and South Pacific, flexible organized track systems may be established within the Fukuoka, Oakland Oceanic, Anchorage Oceanic, Nadi, Tahiti, Auckland Oceanic, Sydney, Brisbane and Port Moresby FIRs.
  • The ACCs providing air traffic service within the concerned FIRs shall provide information to users regarding the PACOTS tracks generated for use. The location of the tracks will depend on traffic demand, prevailing winds, significant weather and other relevant factors. Unless otherwise stated, tracks will apply at FL 290 and above.
  • PACOTS track messages to users specifying track details will be disseminated daily by one of the ACCs. Messages will be disseminated in a timely manner to accommodate the flight planning requirements of users. Any subsequent changes will be issued promptly. Pilots are expected to flight plan in accordance with the daily track message.
  • Note.— PACOTS guidelines containing detailed information on track generation, lateral track spacing, level assignment, position-reporting requirements and other relevant details shall be published in the AIPs or associated supplements of those States which utilize a flexible track system within their airspace or areas of responsibility.

ICAO Differences

Each country departs in some ways with the ICAO standard and common US practices. Pilots should always refer to the Jeppesen Airway Manual, Air Traffic Control, State Rules and Procedures pages for each country on their itineraries for differences with ICAO Standards, Recommended Practices and Procedures. More about this: US versus ICAO.

The following are a sampling of some of the differences, there are many more. You should check the Jeppesen Airway Manual State pages for every country you takeoff, overfly, or land.

Approach Ban

Some countries in the Middle East / Asia region modify or publish an exception to ICAO Approach Ban procedures, prohibiting takeoff, continuing en route, starting an approach, or continuing an approach if the destination weather is below minimums. You need to know the rule for your destination before takeoff.

More about this: Approach Ban.

Lost Communications

Middle East and Asia lost communications standards tend to be ICAO Doc 4444 compliant. That should alert all U.S. pilots that they are different from what is used in the United States.

More about this: Lost Communications.

Strategic Lateral Offset Procedure

Some countries employ Strategic Lateral Offset Procedures (SLOP) over domestic airspace. For example:

  • [Jeppesen Airway Manual, Air Traffic Control, State Rules and Procedures, China, 11 Oct 2013] Offsets are only applied on routes A1, L642, M771 and N892. The following requirements apply to the use of the offset:
    1. the decision to apply a strategic lateral offset is the responsibility of the flight crew;
    2. the offset shall be established at a distance of one or two nautical miles to RIGHT of the center line relative to the direction of flight;
    3. the strategic lateral offset procedure has been designed to include offsets to mitigate the effects of wake turbulence of preceding aircraft. If wake turbulence needs to be avoided, one of the three available options (centerline, 1NM or 2NM right offset) shall be used;
    4. in airspace where the use of lateral offsets has been authorized, pilots are not required to inform ATC that an offset is being applied;
    5. aircraft transiting areas of radar coverage in airspace where offset tracking is permitted may initiate or continue offset.
  • Offsets are only applied by aircraft with automatic offset tracking capability.

More about this: Strategic Lateral Offset Procedure (SLOP).

Traffic Information Broadcast by Aircraft (TIBA)

Some countries have uncontrolled IFR airspace requiring a "listening watch" procedure on air traffic advisory service frequencies. For one example of many:

  • [Jeppesen Airway Manual, Air Traffic Control, State Rules and Procedures, Middle East, Saudi Arabia, 1 Nov 2013] In class "G" airspace, where there is no ATS unit to provide the necessary flight information service to aircraft, all aircraft must follow the Traffic Information Broadcasts by Aircraft (TIBA) procedures and broadcast relevant collision avoidance information to each other. The published TIBA frequency is the designated air-to-air frequency to be used by aircraft when flying in uncontrolled airspace (class "G") and is also the designated ground-to-air frequency for use between authorized ground agencies and aircraft operating within aerodrome ATZs.

For more about this: Traffic Information Broadcast by Aircraft (TIBA).

References

ICAO Doc 7030 - Regional Supplementary Procedures, International Civil Aviation Organization, 2 2008

ICAO Doc 7030, Amendment 1, International Civil Aviation Organization, 8 January 2009

ICAO Doc 9613 - Performance Based Navigation (PBN) Manual, International Civil Aviation Organization, 2008

Jeppesen Airway Manual

Revision: 20140112
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