Figure: SAM Region, from Eddie's notes.

Eddie Sez:

Regional differences from the ICAO standard can be found in ICAO Document 7030 and your Jeppesen Airway Manual. Both of the sources, however, can be out of date. See International Operations Manual / Regional Introduction for ideas about getting up-to-date information.

As countries around the world update navigation systems and procedures, it becomes increasingly important to speak with somebody who has been to the airport recently or have a contact in country with local knowledge. As we say in the military, there is no substitute for boots on the ground.

What follows comes from the references shown below. Where I think it helpful, I've added my own comments in blue.


This region is moving from a mix of navigation requirements to the system of Performance Based Navigation outlined in ICAO Document 9613. Current navigation requirements are available on Jeppesen Airway Manual Air Traffic Control pages and Chapter 4 of each region covered by ICAO Document 7030.

RNAV 10 (RNP 10)

[ICAO Doc 7030, §SAM, ¶4.1.1.1.] RNAV 10 (RNP 10) Area of applicability:

More about this:International Operations / Required Navigation Performance-10 (RNP-10).

WGS-84 Compliance

All of South America appears to be WGS-84 compliant. More about this: International Operations / World Geodetic System 84 (WGS-84).


RVSM

[ICAO Doc 7030, §SAM, ¶4.2.]

More about this: Procedures & Techniques / Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM).


Altimeter Procedures

All countries use QNH.


Special Routings

Atlantic Ocean Random Routing RNAV Area (AORRA)

[Jeppesen Airway Manual, Air Traffic Control, State Rules and Procedures, South America, Brazil, Rules and Procedures, 22 Nov 2013]


ICAO Differences

Each country departs in some ways with the ICAO standard and common US practices. Pilots should always refer to the Jeppesen Airway Manual, Air Traffic Control, State Rules and Procedures pages for each country on their itineraries for differences with ICAO Standards, Recommended Practices and Procedures. More about this: International Operations / US versus ICAO.

The following are a sampling of some of the differences, there are many more. You should check the Jeppesen Airway Manual State pages for every country you takeoff, overfly, or land.

Approach Ban

Some countries in the South America region modify or publish an exception to ICAO Approach Ban procedures, prohibiting takeoff, continuing en route, starting an approach, or continuing an approach if the destination weather is below minimums. You need to know the rule for your destination before takeoff. For example:

More about this: International Operations / Approach Ban.

Lost Communications

Many countries have exceptions to ICAO standard lost communications procedures, as listed in their individual Jeppesen Airway Manual, Emergency, State Rules and Procedures pages.

More about this: Abnormal Procedures / Lost Communications.

Some countries impose non-standard speed limits on arriving and departing aircraft at controlled airports.

Strategic Lateral Offset Procedure

Some countries employ Strategic Lateral Offset Procedures (SLOP) over domestic airspace. For example:

More about this: International Operations / Strategic Lateral Offset Procedure (SLOP).

Note that Brazil does not publish an allowance to use SLOP over domestic territory.


References

ICAO Doc 7030 - Regional Supplementary Procedures, International Civil Aviation Organization, 2 2008

ICAO Doc 9613 - Performance Based Navigation (PBN) Manual, International Civil Aviation Organization, 2008

Jeppesen Airway Manual