Eddie Sez:

Required Navigation Performance (RNP) standards are almost always performance based, requiring on-board performance monitoring and alerting. This is as opposed to the older RNAV systems which are an equipment-based standard that do not require on-board performance monitoring and alerting.

We say almost always because RNP-10 is an exception. Many areas of the world adopted "RNP-10" as synonymous with "RNAV-10," violating the method ICAO set up in ICAO Doc 9613 Performance Based Navigation. The ICAO elected to retain "RNP-10" when in fact it meant "RNAV-10" because changing all the charts and manuals would have been too expensive. The key takeaway from all this is to realize that "RNP-10" does not require performance monitoring and alerting, as do the other RNP designations. [ICAO Doc 9613 Performance Based Navigation, Volume I, Part A, ¶ 1.2.5.5.1]

Under 14 CFR 91 you will need an LOA and under 14 CFR 135 you will need OpSpecs B037 and B038.

What follows comes from the references shown below. Where I think it helpful, I've added my own comments in blue.


Inconsistent RNP Designation

[ICAO Doc 9613, Volume I, Part A, ¶1.2.5.1] The existing RNP 10 designation is inconsistent with PBN RNP and RNAV specifications. RNP 10 does not include requirements for on-board performance monitoring and alerting. For purposes of consistency with the PBN concept, RNP 10 is referred to as RNAV 10 in this manual. Renaming current RNP 10 routes, operational approvals, etc., to an RNAV 10 designation would be an extensive and expensive task, which is not cost-effective. Consequently, any existing or new operational approvals will continue to be designated RNP 10, and any charting annotations will be depicted as RNP 10.


Location

Africa

[ICAO Doc 7030, §AFI, ¶4.1.1]

Asia

[ICAO Doc 7030, §MID/ASIA, ¶4.1.1]

Pacific

[ICAO Doc 7030, §PAC, ¶4.1.1]

South America

[ICAO Doc 7030, §SAM, ¶4.1.1]

RNAV Provisions

[ICAO Doc 4444, ¶5.4.2.6] LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION MINIMA BASED ON DISTANCE USING RNAV WHERE RNP IS SPECIFIED

5.4.2.6.2.2 Direct controller-pilot communications shall be maintained while applying a distance-based separation minima. Direct controller-pilot communications shall be voice or CPDLC. The communication criteria necessary for CPDLC to satisfy the requirement for direct controller-pilot communications shall be established by an appropriate safety assessment.

5.4.2.6.3 Longitudinal distance-based separation minima in an RNP RNAV environment not using ADS

5.4.2.6.3.1 For aircraft cruising, climbing or descending on the same track, the following separation minimum may be used:

Separation minimum RNP type Communication requirement Surveillance requirement Distance verification requirements
93 km (50NM) 10 Direct controller-pilot communications Procedure position reports At least every 24 minutes

Accuracy / Performance Standards

[ICAO Doc 9613, Volume II, Part C,¶1.3.4.1]


Documentation / Certification

Determining Eligibility of Aircraft

FAA Order 8400.12A was written in 1998 and details an extensive process to determine aircraft eligibility. The process has pretty much aligned itself with other RNP approvals; an AFM statement seems to suffice.

14 CFR 91

[FAA Order 8400.12A, ¶8.b.(2)] These operators should contact their local FSDO to start the process for RNP-10 authorization. Operators under part 91 will receive an LOA, which authorizes RNP-10 operations. The LOA will identify any conditions or limitations necessary (e.g., navigation systems or procedures required, time limits, routes or areas authorized).

14 CFR 135

[FAA Order 8400.12A, ¶8.b.(1)] These operators should notify the Certificate Management Office (CMO) or CHDO which holds its operating certificate of its intent to request approval for RNP-10 operations. RNP-10 authorizations for air carriers will be addressed through issuance of approved operations specifications. The operations specifications will identify any conditions or limitations necessary (e.g., navigation systems or procedures required, time limits, routes or areas authorized).


Example Compliance

Figure: Example RNP-10 LOA Extract, from Eddie's sordid past.

Under 14 CFR 91 you will need an LOA.

Under 14 CFR 135, you will also need OpSpecs B037 and B038:

Figure: Example OpSpec B037 Extract, from Eddie's sordid past.

Figure: Example OpSpec B038 Extract, from Eddie's sordid past.


Book Notes

Portions of this page can be found in the book International Flight Operations, Part III, Chapter 10.


References

FAA Order 8400.12A, Required Navigation Performance 10 (RNP-10) Operational Approval, U.S. Department of Transportation, 2/9/98

ICAO Doc 7030 - Regional Supplementary Procedures, International Civil Aviation Organization, 2008

ICAO Doc 9613 - Performance Based Navigation (PBN) Manual, International Civil Aviation Organization, 2008