Eddie sez:

Regional differences from the ICAO standard can be found in ICAO Document 7030 and your Jeppesen Airway Manual. Both of the sources, however, can be out of date. See Regional Introduction for ideas about getting up-to-date information.

As countries around the world update navigation systems and procedures, it becomes increasingly important to speak with somebody who has been to the airport recently or have a contact in country with local knowledge. As we say in the military, there is no substitute for boots on the ground.

Everything here is from the references shown below, with a few comments in an alternate color.

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Figure: CAR Region, from Eddie's notes.

This region is moving from a mix of navigation requirements to the system of Performance Based Navigation outlined in ICAO Document 9613. Current navigation requirements are available on Jeppesen Airway Manual Air Traffic Control pages and Chapter 4 of each region covered by ICAO Document 7030.

RNAV 10 (RNP 10)

[ICAO Doc 7030 Amendment 1, §CAR, ¶] RNAV 10 (RNP 10) A lateral separation minimum of 93 km (50 NM) may be applied between flights operating on oceanic routes or areas:

  • within the control area of the San Juan FIR, the Atlantic portion of the Miami Oceanic control area or the West Atlantic Route System (WATRS); and
  • outside WATRS within the control areas of the New York Oceanic FIR, except minimum lateral separation between aircraft transitioning from airspace in the New York Oceanic FIR/CTA to MNPS airspace shall be 110 km (60 NM).

More about this:Required Navigation Performance-10 (RNP-10).

Keep in mind RNP 10 is an exception to the rule of Required Navigation Performance standards, "RNAV 10" retains the "RNP 10" designation for matters of convenience.

WGS-84 Compliance

As of 3 Jan 2014 every country in the Jeppesen Airway Manual, Air Traffic Control, State Rules and Procedures, Caribbean is listed as WGS-84 compliant except the Netherland Antilles, The Jeppesen WGS-84 website, http://www.jeppesen.com/company/publications/wgs-84.jsp, lists their status as unknown.

More about this: World Geodetic System 84 (WGS-84).


[ICAO Document 7030, Section CAR, Paragraph 4.2.1] A minimum vertical separation of 300 m (1,000 ft) shall be applied between FL 290 and FL 410 inclusive in the following FIRs: Barranquilla, Central America, Curacao, Georgetown, Havana, Houston Oceanic, Kingston, Maiquetia, Mazatlan Oceanic, Mexico, Miami Oceanic, Panama, Paramaribo, Piarco, Port-au-Prince, Rochambeau, Santo Domingo and San Juan.

More about this: Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM).

ICAO Differences

Each country departs in some ways with the ICAO standard and common US practices. Pilots should always refer to the Jeppesen Airway Manual, Air Traffic Control, State Rules and Procedures pages for each country on their itineraries for differences with ICAO Standards, Recommended Practices and Procedures. More about this: US versus ICAO.

The following are a sampling of some of the differences, there are many more. You should check the Jeppesen Airway Manual State pages for every country you takeoff, overfly, or land.

It is easy to be complacent in the Caribbean but every country's Airway Manual pages deserve a look. For example, you cannot always used 123.45 for communications (Turks and Caicos), a "contact approach" sometimes means a "visual approach" (Bahamas), and you might have to request engine start at some locations (Netherland Antilles).

Lost Communications

[ICAO Document 7030, Section CAR, Paragraph] WATRS in flight contingency procedures for loss of navigation capability, strategic lateral offset, and weather deviation are ICAO Doc 4444 compliant and are also covered by the WATRS Plus web page: www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ato/service_units/enroute/oceanic/ [FAA Notice WATRS Plus Ops Policy/Procedure Update]

Saying their lost communications standards are ICAO Doc 4444 compliant should alert all U.S. pilots that they are different than what is used in the United States.

More about this: Lost Communications.

Position Reporting

[ICAO Doc 7030, §CAR, ¶] For flights in oceanic areas outside the ATS routes network, the position shall be expressed in terms of latitude and longitude as follows:

  • for flights operating predominantly east-west direction:
    • latitude in degrees and minutes; and
    • longitude in degrees only;
  • for flights operating predominantly north-south direction:
    • latitude in degrees only; and
    • longitude in degrees and minutes.

ICAO Doc 7030 - Regional Supplementary Procedures, International Civil Aviation Organization, 2 2008

ICAO Doc 7030, Amendment 1, International Civil Aviation Organization, 8 January 2009

ICAO Doc 9613 - Performance Based Navigation (PBN) Manual, International Civil Aviation Organization, 2008

Jeppesen Airway Manual