Figure: Example "Descent Angle NA" approach, from SAIB HQ-14-25, p. 2.
[SAIB HQ-14-25, p. 1.]
- The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) believes advisory vertical guidance can aid the pilot when flying the final approach segment of IAPs without a glideslope or an approved glide path. As a result, there were multiple public requests for the FAA to publish vertical descent angles on these IAPs. Many manufacturers then chose to use the published vertical descent angle when providing advisory vertical guidance for these IAPs.
Translation: the FAA supports using a continuous descent final approach.
- The types of IAPs the FAA publishes with a vertical descent angle to help provide advisory vertical guidance include: 1) conventional IAPs (i.e., very-high frequency omni-directional receiver (VOR), localizer-type directional aid (LDA), simplified directional facility (SDF), etc.); and 2) required navigation performance IAPs titled “RNAV (GPS) RWY XX” with stand-alone lateral navigation (LNAV) and/or localizer performance without vertical guidance (LP) lines of minima.
Translation: The FAA lumps togehter VOR, LDA, SDF, and RNAV(GPS) approaches without VNAV minimums into this discussion. The guidance gets murkey because this paragraph covers "IAPs the FAA pbulishes with a vertical descent angle."
- The published vertical descent angle and navigation equipment-generated advisory vertical guidance offers no guarantee of meeting altitude constraints. Advisory vertical guidance does not guarantee obstacle protection or compliance with procedural altitudes. Advisory vertical guidance solely offers an aid to help pilots establish a continuous, stabilized descent during the final approach of the IAP and avoiding the traditional “dive and drive” method. Pilots must use the primary barometric altimeter to comply with all air traffic clearances and altitude constraints.
Translation: A published vertical descent angle on one of these approach types requires that you crosscheck performance against altitude and obstacle constraints; the FAA is not here to help in the case of these approaches. Note that we are again talking about "published vertical descent angle" approaches.
- When the FAA charts these IAPs, they do not show a vertical descent angle in the profile view. The charts currently include the following statement: “Descent Angle NA”. Like flying any other IAP, the pilot must see and avoid any obstacles in the visual segment during transition to landing.
Translation: Once you depart the MDA, it is up to you to spot any obstacles. This paragraph addresses IAPS that "do not show a vertical descent angle," switching gears on us.
- The affected IAPs may create a hazard if the pilot continued to reference the advisory vertical guidance while transitioning to the visual segment of the approach. To avoid creating a possible hazard, FAA procedure designers began excluding a vertical descent angle from these IAPs and coding a “0” (zero) in the appropriate ARINC 424 database format specifications to communicate the absence of the vertical descent angle.
So now we are talking about the approaches with "Descent Angle NA" noted. This "0" coding can be problematic with some FMS because some systems will translate this zero into a default 3° angle, which may not be true, or do something with that zero (such as divide by zero) that the FMS cannot understand. So what to do?
- The FAA recommends operators and pilots carefully review departure, destination and alternate airport IAPs during pre-flight operations. During this review, operators and pilots should look for IAPs published with no vertical descent angle and charted with the statement: “Descent Angle NA” or “Descent Angle NA – Obstacles” in the profile view of the procedure. For these IAPs, the FAA recommends finding and planning to use another IAP (if available) not affected by this airworthiness concern.
Honeywell Update (October 2015)
We in the Honeywell world are adversely impacted . . .
[Honeywell Direct-To, October 2015]
- As stated in the SAIB HQ-14-25, there may be unintended consequences with the use of a zero value coded in the FPA data field. In summary, the SIL describes how Honeywell Business and General Aviation flight management systems will treat a 0 degree FPA as an invalid angle and will insert a valid angle as calculated by the FMS.
- The procedures that have a zero coded as the FPA will still contain altitude constraints. Because the altitude constraints are included in the approach data, the FMS will make use of these and will insert the default vertical angle, typically 3.00 degrees, and continue to provide advisory VNAV to the MAP. The altitude encoded on the MAP may not reflect an appropriate altitude from which an aircraft can make a normal landing (see figure).
Honeywell FMS users will get a 3° angle, but the angle may not necesarily end at 50' height above touchdown at the end of the runway.
Furthermore, many databases do not contain intermediate step down fixes (SDF) and the default vertical angle may not provide adequate guidance above the SDF altitude. When flying procedures that have the statement “Vertical Angle NA,” the use of advisory VNAV should not be used (see figure).
The drawn angle may fail to honor stepdown altitudes.
Pilots should remain vigilant when utilizing VNAV on non-precision procedures and should understand the following:
- Flight crews are responsible for ensuring obstacle clearance in the visual segment for procedures identified by the FAA as ‘Descent Angle NA’ or ‘Descent Angle NA – Obstacles’.
- As with all step down fixes, flight crews must comply with published step down altitudes.
- Honeywell is working to either include the descent angle to ensure the FMS will clear those step down fix altitudes, or to remove the affected procedures from the navigation database.
- Until these procedures are either removed or mitigation is approved, operators are encouraged to follow the FAA recommendation found in the SAIB.
Honeywell Update (April 2017)
This problem is being addressed for business and general aviation aircraft, starting with revision cycle 1703.
[Honeywell Direct-to, April 2017]
- Honeywell has included all stepdown fixes that were removed from Business and General Aviation (B&GA) navigation databases due to the Advisory Vertical Guidance issue (detailed in Service Information Letter D201504000004). It should be noted that this change only affects B&GA operators, and does not apply to Air Transport and Regional (AT&R) aircraft.
- To restore the procedures to operators, Honeywell has added stepdown fixes to affected approaches starting with Cycle 1703. In doing so, pilots will have these approaches available with stepdown fixes that provide advisory terrain and obstacle clearance.
- Pilots must comply with altitude constraints on charted procedures and understand that advisory vertical guidance does not guarantee obstacle protection or compliance with procedural altitudes, as explained in SAIB HQ-14-25. The affected charted procedures will contain a note stating “Descent angle (VNAV) not authorized” or “Descent Angle NA” for pilot awareness.
However, the very next month Honeywell removed the fixes again:
[Honeywell Direct-to, May 2017]
- The April Direct-To Newsletter stated that Honeywell has included all stepdown fixes (SDFs) for business aircraft in navigation database cycle 1703, due to the Advisory Vertical Guidance issue (detailed in Service Information Letter D201504000004). Since then, Honeywell has heard from operators experiencing a “degrade” annunciation after loading an LPV approach that contains a stepdown fix following the FAF. After conducting an investigation, Honeywell decided to temporarily remove the stepdown fixes again until a solution to this new issue can be implemented.
- Cycle 1705 effectively removed the stepdown fixes on May 1, in order to avoid the LPV degrade events. Honeywell will keep operators updated on all changes and the resolution timeline as that information becomes available. Direct-TO will publish another update when the timeline for restoring the SDFs is known, or upon completion, whichever comes first.