This was a poorly qualified crew, flying for an illegal charter operator, not understanding the critical nature of adhering to center of gravity limits on the Challenger 600 series aircraft.
I flew a newer version of this airplane about ten years ago and during that period one was lost due to what the manufacturer claimed was a weight and balance problem but ended up being an inept test pilot. But all who fly the Challenger series should understand that weight and balance is one of their challenges. The aircraft tends to be nose-heavy and the heavier it is, the heavier the nose becomes, to the point of being out of limits.
There are lessons for us non-Challenger pilots as well. We need to understand the shape of our aircraft center of gravity envelope and what impact adding fuel, people, or things to various areas of the airplane have on the airplane's center of gravity. More about this: Weight and Balance. Gulfstreams are far more forgiving but the lessons are still applicable. See G450 Weight and Balance for a quick primer.
Everything here is from the references shown below, with a few comments in an alternate color.
Figure: N370V Crash Site, from NTSB Report, Figure 1.
Figure: Challenger 600 Weight and Balance Envelope, from NTSB Accident Report 06/04, Appendix C, page 110.
[NTSB Accident Report 06/04, page ix.] On February 2, 2005, about 0718 eastern standard time, a Bombardier Challenger CL-600-1A11, N370V, ran off the departure end of runway 6 at Teterboro Airport (TEB), Teterboro, New Jersey, at a ground speed of about 110 knots; through an airport perimeter fence; across a six-lane highway (where it struck a vehicle); and into a parking lot before impacting a building. The two pilots were seriously injured, as were two occupants in the vehicle. The cabin aide, eight passengers, and one person in the building received minor injuries. The airplane was destroyed by impact forces and postimpact fire. The accident flight was an on-demand passenger charter flight from TEB to Chicago Midway Airport, Chicago, Illinois. The flight was subject to the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 135 and operated by Platinum Jet Management, LLC (PJM), Fort Lauderdale, Florida, under the auspices of a charter management agreement with Darby Aviation (Darby), Muscle Shoals, Alabama. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed for the flight, which operated on an instrument flight rules flight plan.
[NTSB Accident Report 06/04, ¶184.108.40.206.]
Under 14 CFR 135.63 the crew was required to prepare a load manifest that includes the aircraft's center of gravity and the center of gravity limits. Even had they not been on a 135 leg, the FAA's usual response is to cite 14 CFR 91.7, "Civil Aircraft Airworthiness," which says the pilot-in-command of any civil aircraft is responsible for determining whether that aircraft is in condition for safe flight.
[NTSB Accident Report 06/04, ¶220.127.116.11]
The weight and balance chart for this airplane shows the effect of adding fuel toward the top of the range moves the center of gravity forward and can move it out of limits.
[NTSB Accident Report 06/04, ¶2.3.2]
This captain had over 3,000 hours in type and should have known the aircraft was prone to a forward center of gravity that could preclude flight.
The report notes the simulator pilots had the advantage of knowing they had to abort and does not list the captain's abort procedures in its findings. Pilots should, I think, practice maximum effort aborts in the simulator to learn a few things we took to heart in the Boeing 747: (1) a maximum effort abort requires you mash both brake pedals to the floor and keep them there in an airplane with an anti-skid braking system, (2) All other stopping devices (reversers, spoilers, etc.) need to be activated simultaneously, and (3) The abort isn't over until the aircraft has stopped and you don't release brake pressure until then.
[NTSB Accident Report 06/04, page ix.] The National Transportation Safety Board determines that the probable cause of the accident was the flight crew’s failure to ensure the airplane was loaded within weight and balance limits and their attempt to take off with the center of gravity well forward of the forward takeoff limit, which prevented the airplane from rotating at the intended rotation speed.
[NTSB Accident Report 06/04, ¶3.1
NTSB Aircraft Accident Report, AAR-06/04, Runway Overrun and Collision, Platinum Jet Management, LLC, Bombardier Challenger CL-600-1A11, N370V, Teterboro, New Jersey, February 2, 2005
Copyright 2019. Code 7700 LLC. All Rights Reserved.