the learning never stops!

Favorite (and not so favorite) Books (About and helpful for flying)

Book Notes

I do tend to read a lot and, I must admit, the focus tends to be on aviation. I've been asked many times to provide a top ten list, but I'm not sure how much good that would be given that what interests me may not interest you. So I'll try to put forth a categorized list.


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Photo: Eddie collects books, but many of his are at the public library. (Public domain photo)

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Accident Investigation

As the section on Accidents makes clear, I like to dive into aviaiton accidents in search of clues and methods to prevent recurrence. These are some of my favorite books on the topic.

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Photo: Mountain goat, (Gary Larson)

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  • Diehl, Alan E., Air Safety Investigators, Xlibris, 2013.
  • I got this book when looking for more information about United Airlines Flight 173 (the Portland, OR crash). But I got hooked by the inside view of the NTSB. It helped me learn how to really dissect an accident report.

  • Nance, John, Blind Trust, William and Morrow, New York, 1986.
  • This is the book that kindled my interest in the role Human Factors play in aircraft accidents. Though it is thirty years old, its lesson seem especially pertinent today.

  • Stewart, Stanley, Emergency: Crisis on the Flight Deck, 2013, Airlife Publishing, Ramsbury, Marlborough, England
  • This is a collection of aircraft emergencies where the crew did everything right and saved the day in the end. As such, it teaches Crew Resource Management from a positive angle, a bit of a rarity.

Aeronautics / Technical

This is pretty broad topic, but these books make up the backbone of what it takes to fly.

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Photo: Move over Yeager," (Bob Stevens)

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  • Air Force Manual (AFM) 51-37, Instrument Flying, 1 December 1976
  • About 30 years ago you could find bootleg copies of this manual with the advertisement, "Learn to fly instruments like the pros!" The Air Force used to fly instruments better than anyone else because the pilots were trained in the finest traditions of needle, ball, airspeed, and had to do that in crummy weather all over the world. Well those days are over and most Air Force cockpits haven't kept pace with technology. But if you can find one of these on eBay, it will be worth the price to learn those fundamental skills. (I've also provided an electronic copy in the link.) This manual was long ago replaced by the following, which are better but less nostalgic:


  • Air Force Manual (AFM) 51-40, Air Navigation, Flying Training, 1 July 1973
  • Just like AFM 51-37, this manual for Air Force navigators will teach you many basic skills that will soon be long forgotten. But the lessons are good ones for any pilots who want to stay one step ahead of the electrons. The manual was long ago updated: Air Force Pamphlet 11-216, Air Navigation, 1 March 2001.

  • Davies, D. P., Handling the Big Jets, Civil Aviation Authority, Kingsway, London, 1985.
  • This was a classic for pilots transitioning to large heavy jets. Some of the systems information is a bit dated, but the stick and rudder stuff is still very good.

  • Dole, Charles E., Flight Theory and Aerodynamics, 1981, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York, NY, 1981.
  • This was my aero text from Air Force Safety School, back when that was a three month long course. It is prettier than Aerodynamics for Naval Aviators and the drawings are cleaner. But there is no geting around the fact it came after H. H. Hurt's book.

  • Hurt, H. H., Jr., Aerodynamics for Naval Aviators, Skyhorse Publishing, Inc., New York NY, 2012.
  • This Navy Manual, also known as NAVWEPS 00-80T-80, was first published in 1959 and remains the standard aerodynamics text book for many. I rely on it heavily for many of my articles dealing with aeronautical engineering. It remains my most heavily referenced book, bar none.

  • Petroski, Henry, To Engineer is Human: The Role of Failure in Successful Design, Vintage Books, NY, 1992.
  • A study on how engineers (and humans) learn from failures to improve designs in the future. There are many case studies that examine our idea of perfection versus the steps to get there.

  • Rogowski, Stephen J., Computers for Sea & Sky, Creative Computing Press, Morristown, New Jersey, 1982.
  • A navigator gave this book to me in 1983 when he figured out I was going to write a navigation program for our Boeing 707 squadron. If you have any interest in the math behind navigation, this is a great resource.

  • Sobel, Dava, Longitude: The true story of a long genius who solved the greatest scientific problem of his time, Thomas Allen & Sons Canada Limited, Markham, Ontario, 1995
  • A wonderful treatise on the birth of early long distance navigation.

Biographical

Some of these books simply fall into the "fun to read" category. But even if they are fun to read, several also fall into the "how to fly" category.

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Photo: John Boyd

Must Reads

  • Coram, Robert, Boyd: The Fighter Pilot Who Changed the Art of War, Back Bay Books, New York, NY, 2002
  • Written about my favorite Air Force officer of all times, this is an engaging and tragic story about the pilot who did indeed change the art of war for the Air Force, the Army, and the Marine Corps. Along the way there are great lessons in integrity and leadership. Colonel Boyd's maxim on integrity has changed the way I approach leadership. See: Integrity versus Loyalty. His OODA loop has changed the way I approach life, and that has made all the difference. This is my favorite biography of all time. (And I've read a lot of them.)

  • Doolittle, James H., I Could Never Be So Lucky Again, A Bantam Book, New York, NY, September 1991.
  • A well written story about an uncommon man who did uncommon things. You could argue that circumstances like those General Doolittle found himself in will never again be repeated. We are fortunate those circumstances present themselves to him.

  • Gann, Ernest K., Fate is the Hunter, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1961.
  • Ernest Gann's memoir is a wonderful account of commercial aviation in the early days. My favorite passage: "We are being paid to avoid hazard, but there are still many unexplored crevasses in our reservoir of knowledge. Our zeal for air transport is always soured when we so easily reflect on failures involving certain late comrades, who proved in the final analysis to be, like ourselves, only the tip of the arrow. We are obliged to recongize our possible epitaph — His end was abrupt."

  • Goldstone, Lawrence, Birdmen: The Wright Brothers, Glenn Curtis, and the Battle to Control the Skies, Ballantine Books, New York, 2014.
  • This is probably the best treatise about the dawn of powered flight as it really took place, after that first flight. The Wright's squandered their chance to shape aviation by becoming mired in patent litigation while others, most notably Glen Curtis, innovated.

  • Hansen, James R., First Man: The Life of Neil A. Armstrong, Simon & Schuster, New York, 2005.
  • An excellent and long overdue telling of Neil Armstrong's life. Throughout the years there has been petty sniping from others that can best be summed up by one word: jealously. After multiple tellings from Chuck Yeager and Edwin Aldrin we were left wondering what the real story was. Now we know.

  • Luciani, Ivan, An Aviator's Journey: Tales of a Corporate Pilot, 2015.
  • There are as many stories about becoming a professional pilot as there are professional pilots, but few of these are told in such an engaging manner. From my review on Amazon: This is a fascinating look into a corporate pilot's progress from novice to expert, with all the joy and sadness that the journey brings. It is especially interesting for those of us with limited experience in many of the small, secluded, and yet exotic destinations throughout Asia. Captain Luciani puts us into the cockpit for a glimpse of what it takes to get from Point A to Point B without breaking anything. Stick and rudder skills are a must, of course. But Ivan's tale gives us an insight into the real challenges with aviation at this level: the decision making skills needed.

  • McCullough, David, The Wright Brothers, Simon & Schuster, New York, 2015.
  • This is a good story about the dawn of powered flight through Kitty Hawk. From that point on I think it is too charitable towards the Wrights.

    Okay, if you are interested in this kind of thing

  • Gillcrist, Rear Admiral Paul T., Feet Wet: Reflections of a Carrier Pilot, Pocket Books, New York, 1990.
  • Admiral Gillcrest had a front row seat for the U.S. Navy's early jet history in aircraft carriers. It is quite educational for those of us who didn't grow up in that world. My only disappointment was how the Admiral evolved into one of those senior officers willing to bend the rules for his personal benefit (all for the sake of another carrier landing in an airplane he wasn't qualified in).

    Don't Bother

  • Johnson, Clarence L., Kelly: More Than My Share of it All, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 1989.
  • I thought it would be next to impossible to make Kelly Johnson's life story boring, but he managed to do it. It is a tedious read. As the Brigadier General Leo Geary warns in the forward, the book is pretty much just the facts. I am less interested in the man now than I was when I started the book. That's the worst kind of biography.

    Crew Resource Management

    I bounce between thinking this subject is made up psychobabble that ought to be obvious to any aviator, and after yet another crash that could have been prevented, to thinking it is absolutely vital reading.

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    Photo: The limit, (Chris Manno)

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    • Cortés, Antonio; Cusick, Stephen; Rodrigues, Clarence, Commercial Aviation Safety, McGraw Hill Education, New York, NY, 2017.
    • There is a lot more to this book than CRM. But it does a good job on CRM and a host of other subjects.

    • Gandt, Robert, Skygods: The Fall of Pan Am, 2012, Wm. Morrow Company, Inc., New York
    • You can certainly argue this book is more historical (Pan Am) or biographical (Juan Trippe). But I contend the first half of this book is one of the best texts on Crew Resource Management out there. And even if you aren't interested in that, it is a fascinating story about the rise and fall of a great airline.

    • Kanki, Barbara; Helmreich, Robert; and Anca, José, Crew Resource Management, Academic Press, Amsterdam, 2010.
    • This tome (500 pages) can be a bit tedious and reminds me that the academics have ruined CRM forever. But there are some fundamentals that are worth studying. But, all things considered, give the other books in this list a try first.

    Fiction

    Yes, this list should be a lot longer. But no fiction I've read before or since stands up to Joseph Heller's classic.

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    Photo: Captain Yosarian, B-25 bombardier, about to bomb fish, from Catch-22

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    Click here for a short video.

    • Heller, Joseph, Catch-22, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1955
    • This is about the only piece of fiction I can read over and over again. The first time through can be frustrating unless you've seen the movie first. But the book, as is often said, is so much better. (Even though the movie is quite good.)

    Historical

    This is another list that should grow greatly very soon. It is just a matter of finding all those books that were from the library and never made it to my shelf at home.

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    Photo: The ghost of Air Force Past, (Offutt AFB Crew Dog Gazette, 1991)

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    • Burton, James G., The Pentagon Wars, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland, 1993
    • An excellent look into the inner workings of the U.S. military's acquisition process.

    • Copp, DeWitt S., A Few Great Captains, EPM Publications, McLean, Virginia, 1980
    • This has long been one of my favorite Air Force books because it documents very clearly that the USAF was founded by military men unwilling to accept military decisions.

    • Copp, DeWitt S., Forged in Fire, Doubleday & Company,Garden City, New York, 1982.
    • This is the history of the U.S. Air Force, starting in 1940 and ending with the end of World War II when the birth of the youngest U.S. military service became inevitable.

    • Michel III, Miarshal L., The 11 Days of Christmas — America's Last Vietnam Battle, Encounter Books, New York, 2002
    • If you think Linebacker II was a costly air campaign but a huge success, you are only half right. If you think President Johnson micromanaged the air war from the White House and President Nixon did more of the same, you are only half right. If you think all the official Air Force histories about the Strategic Air Command's role during Lineback II are correct and that it has become a template for how to run an air war, you are wrong on both accounts. This is a must read for any student of air power.

    • Wolf, Tom, "The Right Stuff," McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd, Toronto, 1979
    • Another one of my favorites in the "birth of the Air Force" category, it also delves into military pilot psychology. If you have an Air Force or Navy pilot background, this book can help you understand yourself.

    Instructional

    I used to read a lot of instructional books but these days most of that happens on YouTube. So this is a short list but I will eventually comb through the library and add others.

    • Gallo, Carmine, Talk Like TED: The 9 public-speaking secrets of the world's top minds, St. Marting's Griffin, New York, 2014
    • TED Talks are about technology, entertainment, and design and are held throughout the world to give people a chance to listen to others who have a gift for something and eighteen minutes to present that. It is my favorite formula for giving a public speech, but all of my talks tend to require longer presentations so I rarely use the formula. But I do try to use the "public-speaking secrets."

    Leadership / Command

    I've written a lot about this subject and — shameless plug — recommend Flight Lessons 4: Leadership & Command.

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    Drawing: Attila the Hun, from Fredrik Sander, Poetic Edda (public domain)

    • Fallucco, Sal J., Aircraft Command Techniques, 2002, Ashgate, Farnham, England
    • This is a good primer for brand new captains, but I would recommend picking it up maybe a year into your captaincy. Some of its lessons are better absorbed after you've "been there" for a while.

    • Machiavelli, Niccolò., The Prince, 1550.
    • The Prince is a 16th-century political treatise by the Italian political theorist Machiavelli. It is often thought of as a work of political philosophy and is where we get the phrase "the ends justify the means." I found it to be farsical until I found myself in a Machiavellian organization, where it became a survival guide. You will find that story here: Flight Lessons 4: Leadership & Command.

    • Marquet, L. David, Turn the Ship Around!, Penguin Random House LLC, New York, 2012
    • The author's career in the Navy as a submariner was steeped in top-down leadership styles where power was centralized at the top and subordinates spring-loaded to defer decision making to those they reported to. The author's experiment was a model of empowering leadership to subordinates. The idea is that without this kind of mentoring, the organization will fail in the long term, even with short term successes. I think most of the lessons apply to larger organizations but the ideas are good for smaller ones too.

    • Man, John, The Leadership Secrets of Genghis Khan, 2009, Transworld Publishers
    • There are quite a few leadership lessons here, so many that this was a required leadership text for many Army officers. I think the lessons are good, if taken with a grain of salt. I write about that here: Leadership Styles.

    • Maxwell, John C., The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership, Nashville, Tennessee, 1997.
    • I read this many years after learning The Nick's Four Steps to Becoming a True Leader and was amazed to see "The Nick" had about the same process, only 15 years earlier. Regardless, Maxwell's rules are pretty good too.

    • Peters, Laurence J., Hull, Raymond, The Peter Principle: Why Things Always Go Wrong, William Morrow & Company, Inc., New York, 1969.
    • "People in a hierarchy tend to rise to their level of incompetence." This book was published as a satire, but many have taken it as a serious piece of management theory. I bought the original while I was in high school and over the years recognized that there was much truth in the book, as evidence by my experience during and after a 20-year military career. I think about it now and then when considering people for promotion, trying to avoid placing a competent person into a job where they will lose that competence. Or, perhaps more accurately, trying to avoid getting myself placed into such a situation. Satire or not, the book has much to offer anyone trying to navigate there way through a hieararchy.

    • Roberts, Wess, PhD, The Leadership Secrets of Attila the Hun, 1985 © Wess Roberts, First Trade Edition 1990, Reissued 2009 by Grand Central Publishing
    • More good stuff from someone you wouldn't think worthy of emulation, but his writings contain more than a few leadership gems. I write about that here: Leadership Secrets.

    • Trump, Donald J. and Schwartz, Tony, 2015, Ballantine Books, New York.
    • This book is pretty tedious but the story about Trump's experience rebuilding the Wollman Ice Rink (Chapter 12) makes for an interesting case study for dealing with any government agency. Chapter 2 details the "Elements of the Deal" which pretty much sumarized the whole book. If you are managing a flight department and are responsible for making deals (on aircraft, hangars, etc.), this book might be worth your while.

    • Tzu, Sun, The Art of War (in the public domain, the author lived between 544 BC and 496 BC.)
    • This was a required text early in my Air Force career, and I never understood why. But once I started assuming leadership positions the rationale became clear. The lessons do apply.

    Psychology / Human Factors / Touchy Feeley

    The more I get into modern accident case studies, the more cause I have to dive deeper into this "touchy feeley" area.

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    Photo: Eddie finally cured his habit of "dog earing" his books

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    • Burdick, Alan, Why Time Flies: A Mostly Scientific Investigation, Simon & Schuster, New York, NY, 2017
    • This was a bit of a tedious read and makes me wonder about the "spinning of wheels" in academia where so many people can be employed investigating things that don't need investigating. That being said, the author cites an engineer who came of with a formula for the passage of time. That made it worthwhile reading for me.

    • Epstein, David, Range: Why Generalists Triumph in a Specialized World, Riverhead Books, New York, 2019
    • If you believe you cannot excel at an endeavor without early specialization, this book is for you. It is true that Tiger Woods began his path to golf superstardom at age 2. But he is the exception. Take Roger Federer for example. Tennis was a favorite alongside other sports and he was never pushed to pick a sport. That breadth of experiences may explain his continued dominance in the sport. The lesson for us pilots is this: don't focus exclusively on aviation, broadening your range will pay dividends within and outside your chosen profession.

    • Ericsson, Anders, Pool, Robert, Peak: Secrets From the New Science of Expertise, Mariner Books, New York, 2017.
    • A good treatise on how to get better at things, as well as a refutation to the old maxims that "practice makes perfect," "natural talent," and the idea it takes 10,000 to become an expert at any task. Instead, the authors say your practice needs to be purposeful. I used some of this to demonstrate learning techniques for an article about Top Gun Debriefings.

    • Gawande, Atul., The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right, 2009, Metropolitan Boos, Henry Holt and Company, LLC, New York.
    • A fascinating look at the benefits of using checklists from another perspective, that of a surgeon. Dr. Gawande relates his experiences and the studies he pushed in language that isn't as filled with so much jargon as to obscure the lessons, but with just enough to give you a flavor of just how difficult the adoption was at first.

    • Haidt, Jonathan, The Happiness Hypothesis, Basic Books, New York, 2006.
    • There are a lot of theories about happiness in this book, from Buddha, to Lao Tzu, and all sorts of academics. You can dwell on various philosophies, such as "calm inaction" and "desireless waiting." But, being the engineer that I am, the crux of the matter happens along page 90 where the author breaks happiness into a mathematical formula. Yes, math. The idea is that we are genetically predisposed to a certain level of happiness, called a "biological set point." Some people are just naturally happy and others, not so much. But the important point is you have a level of happiness above that, and you have control over that level. So what does happiness have to do with aviation? A happy pilot is safer than a miserable one.

    • Holiday, Ryan, Ego is the Enemy, Portfolio Penguin, New York, 2016
    • This book provides an explanation of what drives many of us to fall prey to our successes. More importantly, it offers a way to avoid those pitfalls. I especially liked the many stories of those to emulate as well as those to avoid.

    • Klein, Sources of Power: How People Make Decisions, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1999.
    • I quite often have disparaging words for academicians but not so with Gary Klein. He has put science into figuring out why we humans do what we do, and this book is one of the best I've ever seen on decision-making.

    • Peterson, Jordan B., 12 Rules for Life, Penguin Random House, Toronto, 2018.
    • So what does this have to do with flying? Plenty. His first rule, "Stand up straight with your shoulders back," parallels my first rule: Attitude determines altitude. There is a lot of pilot psychology that will do your inner pilot pscyhe good, such as "Compare yourself to who you were yesterday, not to who someone else is today." One of my Purdue AFROTC classmates is an astronaut. Several of my peers retired from the USAF and USN as general officers. But I was the last cadet in my class to solo and I am betting I will be the last still collecting a paycheck as a professional pilot when all is said and done. There is a lot more to this book than just this. Recommended.

    • Spark, Nick T., A History of Murphy's Law, www.historyofmurphyslaw.com, 2006
    • A brief telling of the players behind what has become known as "Murphy's Law" in popular culture. The book is out of print and it took more expense than it was worth to get. But it does tell a story worth telling, I've capture some of it here: Reliability Engineering: "Murphy's Law".

    • Vaughn, Dianne, The Challenger Launch Decision: Risky Technology, Culture, and Deviance at NASA, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 1996.
    • This is a long (almost 600 pages) and ponderous (it took me a month to read) book, but it is worth every bit of effort you put into it. My copy is littered with Post-It notes. If you want to understand the normalization of deviance, this book is an absolute must.

    • Wolfe, Tom, The Kingdom of Speech, Little, Brown, and Company, New York, 2016.
    • You might think Tom Wolfe is a fiction writer but the truth is he got his start in non-fiction and sometimes ventures back from whence he came. This book is about the search for proof of the evolution of language, demonstrating how it had been accepted as fact but after 150-plus years remains an enigma to those who believe in these types of things. Where this applies to us aviators is in developing the tools to detect Sophistry, the dangerous act of stating a lie as if it were true. Here's a beauty from my past: "You have two seconds AFTER V1 to initiate a takeoff abort." Be careful out there.

    Reading Right Now

    The number of books I've got going at any given times must be an indication of some kind of attention deficit disorder. Some of my poor focus has to do with the number of writing projects going on at any given time (hence the amount of research required) but some of it is just that, a lack of focus. Oh well, I must plod on . . .

    Epstein, David, Range: Why Generalists Triumph in a Specialized World, Riverhead Books, New York, 2019.

    Job, Macarthur, Air Disaster Volume 1, Aerospace Publications PTY, Fyshwick, ACT, Australia, 1994.

    Lutat, Christopher J., Swah, S. Ryan, Automation Airmanship: Nine Principles for Operating Glass Cockpit Aircraft, McGraw Hill, New York, 2013.

    Singh, Simon, The Simpsons and Their Mathematical Secrets, Bloomsbury USA, New York, 2013.

    Pending

    This list has never been empty, but of late it seems to be growing . . .

    Abzug, Malcolm J., Larrabee, E. Eurgene, Airplane Stability and Control, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2002.

    Bradbury, Tom, Meteorology and Flight, A & C Black, London, 2000

    Cengel, Yunus A., Boles, Michael A., Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, MacGraw Hill, New Delhi, 2016.

    Charles, Michael Maya, Artful Flying, Artful Flying LLC, Erie, Colorado, 2005.

    Craig, Gale M., Introduction to Aerodynamics, Regenerative Press, Anderson, Indiana, 2002

    de Tocqueville, Alexis, Democracy in America, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2002.

    Feynman, Richard P., The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Basic Books, New York, 2011.

    Gillcrist, Paul T., Feet Wet, Pocket Books, New York, 1990.

    Hackworth, Colonel David H., About Face: The Odsysey of an American Warrior, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1989.

    Hansen, Victor Davis, The Second World Wars, Basic Books, New York, 2017.

    Heath, Chip & Dan, Switch: How to change things when change is hard, Random House Business Books, London, 2011.

    Hoover, R. A. "Bob," Forever Flying, Atria Paperback, New York, 1996.

    Hughes, Robert, The Fatal Shore, Vintage Books, New York, 1986.

    Hüneke, Klaus, Jet Engines: Fundamentals of Theory, Design, and Operation, Airlife Publishing, Wilshire, U.K., 1997.

    Job, Macarthur, Air Disaster Volume 2, Aerospace Publications PTY, Fyshwick, ACT, Australia, 1998.

    Job, Macarthur, Air Disaster Volume 3, Aerospace Publications PTY, Fyshwick, ACT, Australia, 1998.

    Job, Macarthur, Air Disaster Volume 4, Aerospace Publications PTY, Fyshwick, ACT, Australia, 2001.

    Johnston, A. M. "Tex," Tex Johnston: Jet-Age Test Pilot, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., 1984.

    Lester, Peter F., Aviation Weather, Jeppesen Sanderson Training Products, Englewood, Colorado, 2004.

    Lester, Peter F., Turbulence: A New Perspective for Pilots, Jeppesen Sanderson Training Products, Englewood, Colorado, 1993.

    Lindbergh, Charles A., The Spirit of St. Louis, Scribner, New York, 1953.

    Manchester, William, The Last Lion: Winston Spencer Churchill, Alone, 1932-1940, Bantom Books, New York, 1988.

    Manchester, William, The Last Lion: Winston Spencer Churchill, Defender of the Realm, 1940-1965, Bantom Books, New York, 1988.

    Manchester, William, The Last Lion: Winston Spencer Churchill, Visions of Glory, 1874-1932, Bantom Books, New York, 1988.

    Manno, Chris, Voodoo Rush, White Bird Publications, Austin, Texas, 2016.

    Makos, Adam, A Higher Call, Berkley Calliber, New York, 2012.

    Makos, Adam, Devotion, Ballantine Books, New York, 2015.

    Offerman, Nick, Good Clean Fun, Dutton, New York, 2016.

    Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, The Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine and Its Operation, East Hartford Connecticut, 1970.

    Schiff, Barry, The Proficient Pilot, Aviation Supplies & Academics, Inc., Newcastle, Washington, 1997.

    Schultz, James T., Fielkow, Brian L., Leading People Safely, North Loop Books, Minneapolis, 2016.

    Sebag, Simon, Jerusalem, Vintage Books, New York, 2011.

    Smith, H. C. "Skip," The Illustrated Guide to Aerodynamics, Tab Books, New York, 1992.

    Stimson, George W., Introduction to Airborne Radar, SciTech Publishing, Inc., Hong Kong, 1998.

    Webb, Jim, and Walker, Billy, Fly the Wing, Aviation Supplies & Academics, Inc., Newcastle, Washington, 1997.

    Williams, Jack, The Weather Book, Vintage Books, New York, 1997.

    Young, John W., Forever Young, University Press of Florida, Gainseville, FL, 2012.

    Revision: 20180424
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