Cabin cleaning as a safety issue? Yes.
I've had a few flights where passengers were overcome by the fumes caused by cleaning solvents used by the ground crew the morning of, and once the night before a flight. What seemed innocent to the noses of those in the cabin at sea level pressure became so strong once pressurized, it caused difficulty breathing and noticeable blotches on the skin. We no longer allow any cleaning solvents on the aircraft.
Everything here is from the references shown below, with a few comments in an alternate color.
[The Gulfstream Journal, June 27, 2014]
Note: Manufacturers of commercial off-the-shelf equipment may not take into consideration that their units could be installed in an aircraft and used at altitude in a pressurized cabin. Therefore, manufacturer-recommended cleaners for this equipment may not be on the approved list for aircraft use.
If your aircraft manufacturer doesn't include an approved list, the list shown here is for what Gulfstream has approved. Our cabin altitude rarely exceeds 6,000 feet so if we can't use a particular solvent, chances are you shouldn't either.
The old saying, "there is only so much you can do" applies here when it comes to passenger carry on articles. We certainly aren't going to interrogate every passenger for possession of nail polish remover. But, on the other hand, you are handed a case of the stuff for the luggage compartment, you should let the passenger know this stuff can be lethal at cabin altitudes if the containers were to break in flight and atomize into the air. In the Gulfstream the baggage compartment is aft and all air flow moves forward. If the passenger protests you can offer to have it sent FedEx. But I would, under no circumstances, allow a case of nail polish remover or similar solvents on the aircraft. (In the Air Force I was once given a direct order to carry a case of aircraft solvent on a Gulfstream. I refused, the general officer issuing the order went ballistic, the case was left on the tarmac, and nothing was ever said of the incident again. People can overreact at times, but once they figure out you are keeping things safe, they tend to calm down.
CAUTION: AT NO TIME SHOULD A CARPET BE SHAMPOOED, STEAM CLEANED OR ANY OTHER WET TYPE CLEANING BE PERFORMED WITHIN THE AIRCRAFT TO PREVENT MOLD, MILDEW AND / OR DAMAGE TO THE AIRCRAFT. ALLOW CARPET TO DRY THOROUGHLY BEFORE REINSTALLATION. WHEN SHAMPOOING WOOL CARPETING, USE LOW / NEUTRAL PH SOAPS AND FOLLOW WITH A RINSE. AVOID USING WATER ABOVE 100°F (37.7°C) OR SHRINKAGE MAY OCCUR.
NOTE: Read manufacturer instructions to determine proper water / detergent ratio.
CAUTION: USE COOL TO WARM AIR ONLY TO DRY CARPET. AIR ABOVE 100°F (37.7°C) MAY CAUSE SHRINKAGE.
NOTE: Ensure carpet is thoroughly dry before reinstalling in aircraft.
14 CFR 25, Title 14: Aeronautics and Space, Airworthiness Standards: Transport Category Airplanes, Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
Gulfstream Aircraft Outfitting Cleaning Manual, Basic Issue, September 30, 2013
"Use of Cleaning Chemicals in the Aircraft Cabin," The Gulfstream Journal, June 27, 2014
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