Flying instruments used to be so uncomplicated. If you could maintain a course and fly an intercept, you pretty much had it all covered. These days? Not so much . . .

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Alternate IAP Requirements

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Approach Categories

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Approach VVI

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Arcs

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Back Course Localizer

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Circling Approach

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Circling Approach Area

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(U.S.) Circling Approach Minimums Are Too Low!

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Cirling Revisited

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Course Reversal

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Holding

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Instrument Landing System (ILS)

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Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance (LPV)

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Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) Approaches

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Precision Approach Radar (PAR)

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Procedure Turn Hold in Lieu

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RNAV(GNSS) Example

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RNAV(GPS)

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Sitting Duck (Under)

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WGS-84